In order to save the cost of electricity in manufacturing and in private homes installed wind turbines.In this article we consider the basic characteristics, species and operation of wind turbines.
- Design and operation of wind turbine windmills
- Recommendations for choosing a wind turbine
- Overview manufacturers of wind turbines
Design and operation of wind turbines
main components of the wind turbine:
1. Generator - mechanical energy converterinto electricity.The generator charges the batteries.The higher the wind speed, the battery is quickly charged.
2. The blades of the wind turbine - part of the wind turbine, which is subjected to the force of the wind, and then acts on the generator shaft.
3. Mast - a device which is attached generator and blades.From the height of the mast depends on the speed and stability of the wind turbine.
Additional components of wind turbine:
1. Controllers - wind generator contr
2. Batteries Battery - devices for storing energy, which is used at a time when there is no wind.Another function of the battery performs alignment and stabilization of the energy generated by the generator.The batteries supply the power.
3. anemoscope or wind measuring device - collects and processes data about the speed, direction and gusts of wind.Anemoscope mounted on the wind generators more powerful for processing large amounts of energy.
4. Automatic controls are designed to combine the power of wind turbines, power, diesel generator or other energy sources.
5. Inverter - a device for processing DC to AC intended for household and electrical engineering.
If you get wind on wind turbine blade rotates the device.During operation of the wind turbine produces alternating current that enters the controller and processed to DC.DC charges the batteries, which provide electricity for a private house or a large enterprise.But, for most electrical needs AC single-phase or three-phase current, which is generated in the inverter.
Possible use of wind turbines in the power supply system:
- windmill work with the battery in stand-alone mode;
- parallel operation of the wind turbine on batteries and solar cells;
- work wind turbine with a parallel use of the reserve (diesel, petrol or gas) generator;
- parallel operation of the wind turbine and a conventional electrical outlet.
Advantages of wind turbine:
- getting clean, safe and reliable electricity,
- reduced costs of payment for electricity;
- quiet operation of the device;
- greatest amount of energy producing wind turbines in the fall or winter, when the demand for more electricity for heating;
- price of wind turbines is much lower than the cost of alternative sources of electricity;
- the possibility of wind turbines work in parallel with other sources of electricity;
- choice of wind turbine capacity, depending on the type of terrain and the amount of electricity required;
- the possibility of using wind power on yachts or boats;
- spend once wind turbine, provides electricity for at least 20 years.
Depending on the placement of turbines wind turbines emit:
- vertical type,
- horizontal type.
vertical wind turbine type has a vertically placed turbine, in relation to the earth's surface, and the horizontal vice versa.Vertical wind turbine is easy to catch the most slightest breeze, and the horizontal - more powerful, energy conversion.
Varieties of vertical wind turbines:
1. The invention of the vertical wind turbine belongs to the Swedish inventor Savonius.Vertical wind turbine consists of two cylinders which have a vertical axis of rotation.Regardless of the strength and direction of the wind vertical wind turbine is constantly rotating around its axis.The main drawback of the vertical wind turbine is incomplete use of wind energy.During investigations it was found that the vertical wind turbine uses only a third of the wind energy.
2. Vertical wind turbine Darrieus rotor with having invented a few decades later than usual.Rotary wind turbine has two or three blades and rotor.Wind turbines with rotor easy to manufacture and easy to assemble.The main disadvantage of this wind turbine is that the rotor must be run manually.
3. Wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation and with the presence of helicoid rotor - a twisted blade.which provide uniform rotation wind turbine.Advantage: reducing the load on the bearings, thereby increasing the life of the device.Disadvantages: high cost, complexity of installation.
4. Vertical wind turbine rotor with the presence mnogoplastnogo - the most effective device for the processing of wind energy.Complex has a rotor which comprises a plurality of blades.
5. Orthogonal wind turbines do not require a high speed of the wind.To operate such a device suitable wind speed of 0.7 m / s.Orthogonal vertical wind turbines have a high performance, low-noise motor rotation and interesting design.Apparatus orthogonal wind turbine based on a vertical axis of rotation and multiple blades, which are remote from the axis at a certain distance.Despite the many advantages, the orthogonal wind turbine has disadvantages:
- small lines service support units;
- blades more massive than conventional wind turbines;
- great weight makes it difficult to install the installation of the device.
Horizontal wind turbines have higher efficiency.The main disadvantage is the need for horizontal wind turbines in constant search of the wind using flyugel that is installed separately from the device.
Horizontal wind turbines are divided into:
- device single-vane type - characterized by high rotation speed, they are lightweight and lightweight design;
- two-bladed wind turbines of type - on a device similar to the single blade, but differ in the number of blades;
- three-bladed wind turbines type have the highest capacity of about 7 MW, is considered one of the most popular wind turbine designed for the house;
- multibladed wind turbines have four to fifty blades, these devices are used for the operation of water systems.
in proportion to the number of blades of wind turbines all divided into:
- single blade,
According to the materials that make up the wind generator setup is isolated:
- sailing type wind turbines,
- rigid type wind turbines are made of glass or metal.
Depending on the sign of the stepping rotor wind turbines are divided into:
- device measured step,
- device fixed pitch.
wind turbine based on the variable-pitch has a complex structure, but at the same time increasing the speed of rotation.Wind turbine with a fixed step is reliable and easy.
All wind turbines conventionally divided into two types:
- industrial-type wind turbines;
- home wind generators.
Industrial wind turbines used to produce large amounts of electricity.For the device of the wind park consisting of several tens or hundreds of wind turbines requires a thorough examination of the area, which is carried out over a year or two.Industrial wind turbines allow to get electricity to provide electricity to a few tens of houses or specific production.
wind turbine for home - can significantly reduce the cost of electricity and ensures the independence of the work of the electricity grid.
Recommendations for choosing a wind turbine
1. Before choosing a wind turbine should define the power and functionality of this device.
2. Carefully review the variety of windmills and check the climatic conditions of the region in which you plan to install a wind turbine.
3. Determine the wind turbine power output, which depends on the power converter (inverter).The second title of output power - peak load - a set number of devices that will work simultaneously with the wind generator.That is, the output power is defined as the total capacity of the wind turbine.Even if rare, but a large power consumption should be selected from a large wind turbine capacity.To increase the output power to be set several inverters.
4. Time for continuous operation of the device - determines the power of the battery, which are installed on the wind turbine.With windless weather batteries provide electricity room.
5. The rates are determined by the battery capacity of the device, wind speed, height of the installation and the relief area on which the wind turbine.The higher the power of the wind turbine, the faster the battery charge.With the constant consumption of electricity or light winds choose more powerful models of wind turbines.To increase the rate of battery, connect several generators for wind turbines.
6. Do not buy a lot of batteries, with weak wind force, as a wind generator will not have time to charge all batteries.If the batteries are not fully charged, this leads to a rapid exit of their order, so the number of batteries to be calculated from the power consumption of all electrical appliances in the house.
7. To buy a windmill, should pay attention to the main factor - the energy generated by the device.This criterion specified in the technical data of wind turbines.
8. To determine the power consumption of the house, where the wind turbine will be installed, should review the electricity bills for the last 12 months, and to bring the minimum, average and maximum rate of energy consumption.
9. Through research the nearest weather station to find out about the annual average wind speed at the alleged site of the wind turbine installation.Optimum performance of the wind turbine is provided in the wind of 5 m / s.
10. It is better to install a wind generator as an additional power source paired with a diesel or gasoline generator.
11. Experience the wind turbine in operation, pay attention to the noise level and the need for maintenance of a windmill.Some powerful wind turbines have a fairly high noise level, leading to discomfort and problems with neighbors.
12. The average life of the wind turbine is six or seven years.
13. It is better to give preference to the wind generator blades which are made of hard materials: fiberglass or metal.
14. Pay attention to the optimal operation of wind turbines at an average speed of the wind, which is typical for this region.
15. Gearless wind turbines are much easier to install, easy to assemble and require no additional maintenance, while the gear despite the complexity of the installation provides more power and a better quality of the windmill.
16. Do not pay attention to such advertising slogans that the wind turbine has an improved design, or large magnetic levitation controller, in most cases such advertising is aimed to ensure that for a conventional wind turbine to get more money.
17. When buying a wind turbine, require a guarantee, and fulfillment of all obligations to the purchaser of wind turbine manufacturer.For example, the presence of fasteners - wind turbine kit, which includes all components: inverters, generators and batteries.When you buy these devices from different manufacturers, the risk of incorrect operation of wind turbines increases.
18. The formula for calculating wind turbine power: P = 0,5 * rho * S * Cp * V3 * ng * nb.P - power of the wind turbine, rho - value of the designation of air density, S - value of the area throwing rotor Cp - coefficient of aerodynamic action, V - the velocity of the wind, ng - radiator efficiency, nb - if the gearbox.The efficiency of the gearbox.
19. The cost of a wind turbine depends on such factors:
- number of blades,
- power batteries,
- power generator,
- number of inverters,
- material manufacturing blades,
- presence gear,
- ratedpower windmill,
- type of wind turbine: horizontal, vertical,
- material of construction of the installation,
- presence of additional components.
Overview manufacturers of wind turbines wind turbine
to buy, you must first calculate the power of the wind turbine and consumes electricity.After the calculation note on the value of the windmill.
first position in the production of wind turbines is Germany, Denmark and France.A few decades ago the Russian manufacturer of wind turbines, which, in comparison with foreign models require improvement.
Consider the basic popular manufacturers vetrogeneratovor Housing:
1. AEOLOS (Denmark)
Features turbines AEOLOS:
- company is developing wind farms more than 35 years;
- power vertical wind turbines ranging from 500 W to 500 kW;
- power horizontal windmills - 300-10000 W;
- scope of wind turbines: the private sector, farming, supply of electricity communities and schools;
- a high level of power generation;
- use the generator without the gearbox ensures a high level of reliability of wind turbines;
- small maintenance costs;
- high security feature provides position control device of wind turbines;
- availability of electronic braking systems.
Specifications AEOLOS H 1kW:
- value of rated power: 1 kW;
- value of maximum power: 1.5 kW;
- output voltage: 48 V;
- characteristics of blades: 3 pieces of material - glass;
- generator features: three-phase generator magnitnoelektricheskogo type that provides a constant current;
- efficiency: less than 0.95;
- guarantee lines: 5 years;
- maximum lines of operation: 20 years.
2. ENERCON (Germany)
- company ENERCON turbines power from 330 watts to 7.58 mW;
- the ring oscillator;
- absence of transmission;
- implementation of international standards of quality: reliability and durability.
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