Installation of wind turbines - a great alternative to traditional power sources.But the cost of wind power is quite high, it is much easier to make a windmill with his hands.Before the start of the process should be familiar with the principle of wind turbines and varieties, and then proceed to the instructions on how to make a windmill.
- Principle of operation and construction of the wind turbine
- Advantages of the wind turbine
- calculation power windmill windmills
- Making homemade wind generator wind turbine installation
Principle of operation and construction of the wind turbine
The principle of the windmill dependsthe main functions of this unit - converting mechanical wind energy into a constant which is used to provide electricity to a private home or an entire village, depending on the capacity and number of installations.
wind turbine consists of basic and additional components.The main components of eac
1. masts - device for maintaining the wind turbines at the desired height, in some models of the most powerful wind turbine mast length is 200 m. The height of the mast determines the speed and stability of the wind turbine.
2. The blades of wind turbines - devices that capture the wind and drives a generator.
3. Generator - a device for converting the mechanical energy of the wind into electricity.
addition to the main components, installation of wind generator equipped with additional features which help to improve the wind turbine to ensure full independence from the traditional sources of electricity.
Additional components of wind turbines:
- controllers - devices that are responsible for the direction of the blades, wind turbine provides high quality protection and control battery charging;
- batteries - used for storing energy during strong gusts.Batteries perform an additional function of the alignment and stabilization of energy;
- meter wind or anemoscope - devices collect and store data on the quality characteristics of wind.Anemoscope responsible for determining the speed and direction of wind gusts;
- Automator joint power sources - if there are multiple sources of power, such as wind turbine and diesel or gasoline generator, these devices switch one power source to another;
- inverter - inverter DC to AC electricity, which ensures uninterrupted operation of most electrical equipment.
wind hitting the blades of a windmill drives the whole mechanism of the device.During the movement of the wind there is a development mechanism AC that first of all, to the controller for a wind turbine and converted into a constant.DC in the inverter is converted to a single-phase AC, and provides a home or other building with electricity.Remains current stored in batteries, which are responsible for energy supply at a time when there is no wind and the wind turbine is not able to produce electricity.
wind turbine used in parallel with such power supplies:
- wind turbine that runs on batteries;
- wind turbines work in parallel with battery and solar panels;
- use diesel, petrol or gas generator in conjunction with the windmill;
- parallel power supply by means of wind turbines, and conventional electricity.
benefits of installing wind turbine
wind turbine installation provides a clean, safe and reliable electricity supply, for home and for a large enterprise or an entire village.Also, wind generators installed in remote locations, where it is impossible to use the traditional power supply, for example, in ships or yachts.
Installation of wind turbines substantially reduces the cost of electricity.One time spent on high-quality wind turbine no longer have to spend money to pay monthly bills for electricity, the more possible to construct a homemade wind turbine, which cost several times less than the purchase.
maximum wind turbine works in the autumn and winter, when the wind has the highest prevalence of degree.At the same time demand for electricity increases, because you have to use electricity for heating.
wind turbine operates in parallel with other power sources.For example the winter and autumn the wind turbine can be used in the summer and spring - solar panels.
calculation power windmill
power wind turbines depends on the type of terrain and the amount of electricity consumed, so the choice of the wind turbine, entirely consistent with the individual characteristics of the consumer.
To determine the power of the wind turbine, it is necessary to find out the rated output power of wind turbines, which depends on the Inverter capacity.The output power is determined by the amount of electricity consumed.The easiest way to determine the rated output power - the calculation of the average electricity consumption for that collect electricity bills for the last year, determine the total amount of electricity and divide the total by 12.
is followed to determine the average wind speed in the region of the futurewind turbine installation.This information is located in the immediate meteorological center.
formula for calculating the capacity of wind turbines:
P = 0,5 * rho * S * Cp * V3 * ng * nb.P - component of wind turbine power, rho - designation of air density, S - area index throwing rotor Average - value of the aerodynamic influence, V - wind speed indicator, ng - radiator efficiency, nb - gear efficiency.Types of wind turbines
By placing turbines to the surface wind turbines are divided into:
turbine vertical wind turbine is placed perpendicular to the surface area on which the wind turbine and the horizontal wind generator turbine is placed parallel to the ground.
vertical wind turbines have several varieties:
1. Standard vertical wind turbine - is characterized by the vertical axis of rotation and two cylinders.Vertical wind turbine makes constant rotary motion.The disadvantage of this wind turbine - low power consumption of the wind.
2. Rotary vertical wind turbine is characterized by the presence of the rotor, which reduces the overall load on the wind turbine bearings, thereby extending the operational lines of the device.The disadvantages of wind turbine rotor is a complicated assembly and high cost.
3. Wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation of the rotor helicoid characterized by swirling blades, which are responsible for the uniformity of the rotation of the wind.
4. Orthogonal type vertical wind turbine does not require a strong wind and works even at the slightest wind speed of 0.7 m / s.The advantages of orthogonal wind turbine - silent operation, high security, good technical features.The disadvantages of orthogonal turbines include massive blades and hindered the installation.
Horizontal wind turbines are characterized by the highest efficiency and the presence of the wing, which is responsible for finding the wind.Horizontal wind turbines work only when the wind speed, which is at least 2-2.5 m / s.
include horizontal wind turbines emit:
- single blade wind turbines, which are characterized by low weight and ease of installation;
- two-bladed wind turbines have two blades and a fairly high turnover;
- three-bladed wind turbines have the optimal number of blades and are used in the power supply of private homes;
- multibladed windmill used for pumping water or sewage treatment plants.
Depending on the material from which made the blades isolated windmills:
- with rigid blades: metal or glass fiber;
- to sail blades.
in relation to the sign of the stepping screw release:
- wind turbines with fixed pitch;
- windmills measured steps.
Depending on the scope of the use of wind turbines are divided into:
Industrial wind turbines occupy the entire site and generate huge amounts of electricity.Such devices are fabricated in special mills.
Domestic wind turbines is possible to make your own.Such devices are less powerful and are characterized by simplicity and ease of construction.
Making homemade wind turbine
- welding machine;
- electric drill;
- soldering machine.
consider the instructions for the production of the vertical generator with their hands:
1. First, you must calculate the power unit and the right choice for a wind turbine generator.As the generator is allowed to use a car alternator.However, the use of the generator from the car has several disadvantages: the speed of rotation of the blades should be high enough to ensure the smooth operation of the windmill, to launch such a device requires an additional battery, motor generator is heavy and general construction of wind turbines aggravating circumstances.The best generator for the windmill will be a DC motor or motors that are used in machines elektronnovychislitelnyh last century.Acquire such devices on the radio.
2. To optimize the performance of the wind turbine, the gearbox must be used chain or belt type.Reducer belt type is easier to manufacture and provides high chain gear device reliability.
3. The manufacturing apparatus using a chain gear.To produce such a gearbox is necessary to connect the rotor and the generator of the old bicycle chain.
4. To attach a generator, use bolts or plastic pipe with clamps.Areas where there are attachment points pour silicone or glue.
5. Tips for manufacturing rotor:
- the level of balance of the rotor depends on the efficiency of the wind turbine;
- for the manufacture of blades for wind turbines use two-millimeter aluminum or plastic pipes with a diameter of 6-8 cm;
- size of the blades depends on the speed of wind vane large work better in light winds, but have a low speed and narrow blade will rotate, but the strong demand for wind;
- better to build a medium-sized removable blades that in light winds to shoot them, and with a strong installed.
6. For the construction of the mast using segments of the steel pipe.The mast shall be composed of several sections, for ease of installation and transportation of wind turbine.As used mast antenna towers or telescopic mast.
7. Installing additional hinge on the mast will protect the wind turbine from overload during strong wind gusts.
8. To make the tail wind turbine, take a piece of pipe or a vertical area and attach the blade to the end of the segment.
9. The main elements of the control panel is to have a voltmeter, ammeter, wire ballast resistor and diode bridge.When you move the cursor to the end position of the resistor circuit is opened and the resistor starts.The resistor provides an emergency stop of the generator.The maximum current that can withstand resistor 20-35 And for half a minute.
10. As the inverter using the inverter type purchased or old uninterruptible power supplies for computers.
wind turbine scheme:
Installing wind turbine
1. Determine the location for the windmill tower - the roof or ground.If the mast is installed on the site, you need to pour the foundation and set the anchor ring to secure the mast.
2. The next step - the assembly and the connection sections of the mast.
3. After assembling the mast attach the generator with the bolts or clamps.
4. Attach the blades on the rotor.Connect the rotor mast.
5. Install sensor for wind direction.
6. Fit the wind turbine.
7. Connect the device and run.