oven - this is truly the heart of the bath, without it is impossible to create the conditions of steam.Earlier in the bath furnace is installed directly on the floor, but today there are very different rules and regulations.Under heavy massive stone oven, which hold heat for a long time, make sure the foundation is required.This raises a number of questions and issues that require lighting: a foundation for the furnace is needed as it is done, why it is needed.The correctness of the calculations and compliance with installation technology foundation will help protect against a possible misalignment of the furnace, chimney or destruction of cracks in the brickwork of the furnace.
- Do I need a foundation for the furnace
- How to make a foundation for a brick oven
- Recessed concrete base under the stove
- unburied concrete base under the stove
- slab foundation for the pole
- Foundation for the furnace bath of rubble concrete
- How to make the foundation for the metal stove for baths
Do I need a foundation for the furnace
The very first question that arises is whether so necessary foundation for the oven and, if necessary, then why.
Primarily, if needed in the foundation of the furnace depends on its weight.For example, under the metal furnace , the weight of which is usually not higher than 200 - 250 kg, does not need a personal foundation.It is quite possible to put on a solid foundation floor.An exception is the wooden floor - sometimes preferable to perform a simple foundation for the metal stove.This will reduce the fire hazard, as well as reduce the impact of the oven on a wooden floor.
Brick Oven can have different weights: from 500 kg and up to 8 - 10 m. The most common variant of the furnace weight 1200 - 1500 kg.Under the brick kiln weighing more than 750 kg require a separate foundation.This is primarily due to the advances of the soil and a draft design.
structure bath and furnace design are subject precipitate, which depends on the mass distribution area.Given the structure, heavy massive oven will affect your weight on the foundation baths unevenly will press in place of contact.As a result, the foundation will sink unevenly, building baths could sag.To avoid this, a brick oven personal equip a separate foundation.
Important!The requirement to equip a private foundation under the oven is written in the SNIP.However, there are exceptions.When writing these building codes, we have not done throughout slab foundation, basically just tape.If a whole building filled with reinforced concrete slab baths, the personal foundation for the oven is not necessary.
When choosing the type of foundation you need to take into account the properties of the soil.For example, another reason why you want to do a private foundation under the stove in the bath, is a heave during freezing.Steam burns are not always, quite often it is unheated.During this time the ground freezes under the bath and then expands and narrows what is called heave.As a result of swelling of the foundation under the oven can rise above the level of the very foundation for a bath.If the foundations are linked and had a gap, then there would inevitably destruction and distortion and stoves, and structure.
How to make a foundation for a brick oven
The most important requirement is that the foundation for the furnace in the bath, reliability and nonsusceptibility shifting of soil.To provide it, you must know exactly what type of soil is Bath, and how deep it freezes.If such information you do not have, you should apply to the geological service in your area, they have all the data.
before a foundation for the furnace, it is necessary to calculate the weight.From this will depend on the size of the foundation and its depth.1 m3 of masonry weighing 1350 kg, here is already part of the weight of the weight of bricks and cement mortar.For calculation of weight design of the furnace must be multiplied by the total amount of brickwork (oven) at 1350 kg.For the oven weight of 750 kg, a separate foundation is not required.The basis for such a furnace may be a sheet of asbestos.Top floor on clay solution necessary to put a sheet of asbestos, asbestos sheet on top of the list should be laid roofing iron.This will be sufficient for floor insulation and ensure fire safety.Dimensions of sheets of asbestos and iron should exceed the size of the oven for 25 cm on each side.
Recessed concrete base under the stove
If the weight of a brick oven than 2 tonnes, then the need to equip it buried concrete foundations.It is also the basis for the arrangement of such a foundation can serve as a type of soil - porous clay or loess soil.The porous clay, saturated with water, greatly expanded, especially during freezing.A loess soil gets wet, simply turns into slush.Therefore, on the grounds of the foundation is built deep below the frost line in winter.
- Digging a foundation pit.The dimensions of the pit must exceed the size of the oven for 10 - 15 cm on each side.The depth of the excavation must be greater than the level of soil freezing.In many parts of sufficiently 1.5 m depth.
- seals the bottom of the pit.
- pour a layer of gravel and well compacted.After tamping gravel layer height should be at least 15 cm.
- top pour a layer of sand 20 - 30 cm. Sheds with water and wait until it seeps into the voids between the factions of rubble.
- When the sand is dry, pour another layer of gravel 15 - 20 cm. Tamped.
- be installed in a pit wooden formwork.The inner surface of the formwork or the hot bitumen lubricates gidroizoliruem other way.
- Inside omit the reinforcing frame of a steel rod 8 - 12 mm thick.
- poured concrete to a level of 6 cm below the floor level in the bath.The solution is taking the same as for the foundation baths.
- After casting check horizontal surface of the foundation.
- Cover with foil or concrete roofing material and leave to dry.It takes 15 to 30 days.
- After complete hardening concrete remove formwork.
- promazyvayut foundation wall waterproofing material - tar or any other.Better to do it in 2 - 3 layers.
- space between the foundation and the walls of the ground, as well as between the foundation baths need to fill with sand.
Waterproofing basement surface can be carried out from above, before performing masonry oven.And it is possible to stage the construction of the foundation.For example, the solution can be added appropriate additives.Or at the latest stage of gravel bedding to make the top layer of the concrete preparation of 2 cm from a liquid solution.When it dries, the top can be spread roofing felt or other web material in 2 - 3 layers.Top waterproofing poured concrete.
unburied concrete base under the stove
furnace weighing 1 to 1.5 tons can do melkozaglublennym foundation.Especially if the soil on the site, or continental sedimentary and the level of groundwater is very low.If the region does not suffer from severe flood, there will be enough of this type of foundation, as will be described below.
stage of works on the arrangement of the foundation under the stove melkozaglublennogo :
- excavate the foundation: the size of the size of the oven by 20 cm, 70 cm depth of excavation.
- At the bottom of the pit doing the expansion - the heel.On each side of the pit to extend 10 cm. This gives the opportunity to avoid ground motions.
- poured sand layer 15 cm. To shed its water and wait until the water is absorbed and the sand settles.
- then fill up the sand to a common layer was still 15 cm. Again, fill with water and wait until the water is absorbed.
- pour broken bricks, stone and gravel layer 20 cm. Carefully leveled and compacted.
- Top pour sand and watered.Wait until the sand settles in the cracks between the stones.Fill up the sand and fill it with water as long as the space between the stones will not be filled with sand.
- Fall asleep layer of gravel 10 cm and compacted.
- then set inside the formwork in such a way that between the shell and the pit walls remained free space of 10 cm.
- inserted inside the pit reinforcing frame of the rod 8 mm.
- poured concrete to the floor in the bath.
- Check the horizontal surface of the foundation.
- Cover with foil and concrete waiting for his dry, about 2 - 3 weeks.
- After complete hardening concrete remove formwork and daubed the walls of the basement waterproofing mastic.
free space between the walls of the basement and walls of the pit filled with sand or fine gravel.Sand is preferred.
slab foundation for the pole
For much heaving of soils is also suitable as a foundation for concrete monolithic slabs on piles or pillars.If you bury poles to a depth below the frost line, the ground motions in the winter will be felt not enough.This option arrangement under the basement furnace for those areas where the ground freezes deeply and do a complete foundation to a depth just is not profitable.
On nepuchinistyh soils can be made monolithic slab without the pole.After all, if the soil is subject to heave, the concrete slab will move along the ground.And if she is also associated with the design of the floor, you can not escape destruction within the bath.That is to minimize movement plate and make the pile or column support.
Construction of the foundation slab for the pole:
- height of the concrete slab is 15 cm. Therefore, remove the top layer of soil to a depth.The dimensions of the pit must exceed the size of the oven for 15 - 20 cm on each side.
- the four corners of the pit at a distance of 15 - 20 cm from the edge are drilling holes for poles.The depth of the holes - below the frost line, the diameter of 20 cm.
- Fall asleep to the bottom of the rubble 10 cm and compacted.
- in the hole insert a rolled roofing material.It will serve as a formwork and pier foundation waterproofing.
- inserted inside the frame of the armature 8 mm thick.
- Equips formwork around the trench to fill the plate.Inside also omit the reinforcing frame.
- Fill all concrete.First posts, sealing the concrete with a vibrator, and then the plate.
Important!It is advisable not to fill the intervals between the pillars and filling plates.Otherwise, the design will disconnected, and you need to get monolithic.
After drying concrete about a month later, cover the surface of the slab waterproofing material.Then you can easily equip the oven.
plates on screw piles:
- instead of concrete posts you can use screw piles.They are screwed into the ground using the thread.As a result, the soil is compacted, and foundation settlement will be minimal.
foundation on screw piles are stronger and more durable than the supports of the pillars.But expensive.A concrete slab is poured on top of the screw supports for conventional technology.Plate height of 15 cm. Accordingly, the tip of the screw piles must be recessed a sufficient depth.
Foundation for the furnace bath of rubble concrete
The most common variant of the foundation under the stove - rubble concrete.It is more economical concrete foundation, especially if there are many construction waste in the form of fragments of bricks or stones.Such a foundation can equip instead of buried concrete foundation.
- Digging a foundation pit.Depth - 1 - 1.2 m. Dimensions laterally larger than the dimensions of the oven by 15 - 20 cm.
- compacted soil base.
- poured gravel layer 15 cm and ramming.
- Install wooden formwork.The inner walls gidroizoliruem.
- laid on the bottom of the large stone or brick, the maximum size is 15 cm. Total layer of stones 20 - 30 cm.
- Void fall asleep fine gravel.
- finished concrete solution consistency as liquid cream, and fill them stones.Concrete must fill all voids.
Important!If the height of the foundation is large, the next layer of stone and concrete pouring can be carried out the next day.If the height of the foundation is that enough 2 layers, it can all be done in one day.
- last layer of stones should end at a level such that the finished floor to the left 6 - 7 cm.
- Check the foundation surface for horizontally.If there are deviations, then a solution of concrete as long as the foundation will not smooth horizontal.
- Cover with foil and leave the concrete to dry for 2 - 3 weeks.
- After hardening concrete remove formwork.
surface of the foundation walls must be waterproofed mastic material.The space between the foundation and the walls of the pit filled with sand.Later masonry oven begins to level 6 - 7 cm below the floor level.
Also do not forget that between the foundation and the foundation of the bath under the stove must be a gap of 5 cm, which is best to fill with sand.
How to make a foundation for a metal stove for baths
As already stated above, sometimes under the iron stove also make the foundation, though its weight is not so great.If the floor in the bath concrete, the foundation for making iron stove is not necessary.If wood, it is not necessary, but possible.
- excavate the foundation of the furnace depth of 50 cm. The dimensions of the pit should be slightly larger than the metal oven - 5 - 10 cm.
- poured on the bottom of the excavation rubble and carefully compacted.After tamping gravel layer height should be at least 30 cm.
- top poured concrete preparation layer 2 - 3 cm. The solution for the concrete preparation of the case is as follows: 1 part cement, 4 parts sand and water enough to get the average density of texture.
- After drying concrete preparation plank waterproofing layer 2 - 3 layers.
- Then set the formwork.
- inserted inside the frame of a reinforcing steel rod 8 mm.
- poured concrete layer 20 cm. Prepare a solution of this recipe: 1 part cement, 2.5 parts sand, 4 parts of fine gravel.
- Check the horizontal surface of the foundation.If necessary, top up and leveling mortar.
- After complete solidification of concrete, ie2 weeks later, we carry out a laying of red baked bricks, bringing the level to the level of the basement floor.
red brick can be laid over the entire area as a foundation base, and only as a support post.Also, the entire foundation for the metal furnace can be made of brick.
Foundation for the oven - an important task.If you plan to book furnace masonry specialist, you should not do on their own foundation.You must first consult with stovemaker and only under his leadership began building the foundation.Please note that it is wrong to make a foundation threatens you that during ground motions chimney violate floor and roof.All this can lead to unpleasant disruptions.Think ahead.