External stairs - is an important architectural element of entrance of any building, combining into a single whole interior, exterior and outer landscape of the site.In cases where the landscape area has swings or home design provides a high ground floor, without the small flight of stairs to the porch can not do.Finally, in buildings of any destination outside stairs and perform utility functions such as the entrance to the attic or the basement, emergency exit during fires, accidents, and other force majeure events.
- types of outdoor stairs
- external staircase as the architectural structure
- materials for the manufacture of outdoor stairs
- Wooden stairs exterior
- Exterior stairs of metal
- stone exterior staircase
- Facing external stairs steps
- Technology of preparation of plates and facing steps: a video story
types of outdoor stairs
interesting exterior staircase, whether it is an element of entrance into the house,
- ease of use;
- competent binding to the major supporting structures of the building or landscape area.
are several types of outdoor stairs, depending on the sizes, shapes, basic architectural elements and technical features of attachment to the supporting structures.
the number and outline marches external staircase are:
Depending on the shape of the entryway stairs leading to the house can be:
- square or rectangular;
By arrangement with respect to the facade and the entrance door the following types of ladders:
- profile, parallel to the facade;
- front, perpendicular facade;
external staircase as the architectural structure
Regardless of whether fashionable facade erected a modest technical or metal outdoor staircase, decorative addition to the architectural and artistic requirements, it must comply with the technical standards to be comfortable and safe in operation.
build a porch can be simultaneously with the construction of the house, but you can attach and after the completion of major construction works.If the main entrance to the building is located on the north side of the house, the entrance stairs are not doing too much, and the south side are building an outdoor terrace with sweeping staircase.Technical exterior stairs, performing not so much decorative as a utilitarian function, usually located in the back of the house, but they are trying to survive in a single house with a garden or landscape and site architecture.
To ensure stability of the outer entrance stairs to erect its own foundation or partially resting on the wall of the building foundation.If the entrance to the house is only two or three steps, then erected a massive low porch of the concrete monolith fairly stable due to the vast area of traction.
When placing the entrance to the house at a height of 70-120 cm from the area, erecting a ladder on his own foundation that supports the edges perpendicular or parallel to the front wall of the house.Thus is created independent of the engineering design of the house, whose integrity will not be affected in the case of the shrinkage of the building.Rigidly fixed staircase in the house wall anchors may lead to shrinkage cracking staircase, and the higher the ladder, the more cracks can appear.
In size to the outside stairs are presented almost the same requirements to ensure comfort of use, and that the internal: the tread depth of 29-33 cm and 15-17 cm in height riser, the slope of steps to ensure that water flow of 1-2%.Optimal Step outer staircase - not less than 80 cm, and the width of the top landing designed so that the distance to each door leaf to its edge is not less than 50 cm. The dimensions of at least one of the stairs leading to the house should providethe movement of her bulky objects with dimensions 200h180h60sm.
materials for the manufacture of outdoor stairs
Given that climatic conditions of operation of street stairs are not always favorable, and often extreme materials for their production must meet several requirements:
- resistance to humidity and temperature changes.
most common exterior and garden stairs in low-rise buildings constructed of concrete, brick, natural stone, metal, and at least - made of wood.
Wooden stairs exterior
Despite the fact that the wooden staircase is not ideal for outdoor use, they are quite popular in low-rise construction and landscape design.First of all, this is the cheapest option arrangement entrance to the porch, terrace or in the arbor, and graceful forms, elegantly chiseled balusters, handrails stairs perfectly polished and carved railings and trim wood can transform an ordinary frame, and often stone house in a fabuloustower.
Compared to other materials, wood requires more painstaking care.For the manufacture of outdoor stairs should choose high-density wood - oak, larch, exotic wenge, rosewood, rattan, bamboo - which is necessary to prevent the rotting process antiseptic and cover with water resistant varnish.
Exterior stairs of metal
Perhaps the most popular metal material for the manufacture of outdoor stairs of different purposes: from the exquisite to the simple ceremonial forged evacuation.Depending on the purpose of the external metallic ladder made from profiles and sheet steel, stainless steel, cast iron.
technological properties of the metal allows it to translate any design ideas, and marches of the modern metal staircases acquire a variety of forms:
- curved profile.
modern welding techniques allow the creation of a strong and beautiful fences and handrails of stairs from the mirror polished stainless steel or gently shimmering brass, making them comfortable to use, and easy on the delicate perception.
stone exterior staircase
This group includes a large and expensive luxury ladder noble marble and granite adorn the entrance to a respectable house, restaurant, hotel, or office of the company, and slightly brutal ladder and transitions in the landscape design.
cost monolithic stone stairs is quite high and not all available.Much more widespread alternative - construction of concrete stairs, concrete, or masonry shlakoblochnogo or metal cladding and its granite steps, tile or ceramic tiles, facing slabs of natural or artificial stone.
Facing external stairs steps
for cladding the exterior stair steps suited slabs of stone, porcelain or other materials with a minimum thickness of 30 mm, and can be used for the riser plate thickness of 20 mm.If during the construction of the staircase made of concrete, brick or metal was not provided with the necessary slope of 1-2%, gravity layer perform conventional cement mortar.
Laying cladding material is performed at step so that the top of the riser formed protrusion width not greater than 25-30 mm, which hides the riser and the abutment plates and stairs will look monolithic.
important to know:
When used for finishing steps of lining thickness is less than 30 mm, the projections of the riser can easily break away - the problem is particularly acute when facing the metal frame ladder.
Stairs, steps which are lined with plate thickness of 30 mm, looks respectable.
to ladder is not too slippery, for it should choose the lining stone slabs, sandblasted, with a rough or corrugated surface.On smooth polished stage can be pasted at a distance of 20-30 mm from the edge of the rubber or metal plates with special milled grooves.
technology training boards and facing steps: a video story
Exterior stairs of the porch, unlike domestic interior, are regularly subjected to the aggressive action of the external environment, and therefore need additional structural reinforcement, waterproofing and protection against temperature fluctuations.To prevent the devastating cold bridge at the junction of the porch to the house wall and the formation of ice on the stairs, ladders waterproof insulated rigid extruded polystyrene plates or equip stage electric snow melting system.