choice of materials of construction for interlevel ladder in private homes, more and more.This traditional wood and aluminum, and stone, and even glass.But for outdoor stairs most popular material for many years, it is steel.This is not only very democratic price, and excellent performance of the material.Despite the fact that in every city there are a lot of companies who are ready to take on the production of metal stairs, his hands make it possible, too.The only possession is a prerequisite for the welding machine.Working with metal without welding impossible.To make the "street" ladder of metal enough skills welder amateur, but the production of the inner requires professionalism.
- calculation ladders
- choice of material
- Tools Required
- Making stairs
- Production and installation of reinforcing steel steps
- steps made of perforated steel sheet
- Production and installation of handrails
- Painting and corrosion protection
- "Beauty will save the world»
- staircase with wooden steps - video instruction
stairs To staircase was comfortable it is important to calculate the width and height of the steps, and for the strength to choose the right cross section kosoura.
stringers - tilted beam employee support for the steps.
Quite often the place where a ladder must be installed has some limitations on the area.In this case, it is important to choose a ratio of the width and height of the steps that the design remained comfortable and safe, and yet was compact.
calculating the ratio between the height and width of steps is quite simple.It is produced by the formula:
2H + B = 63, where
H - the height of the riser,
B - width of the tread.
considered the most convenient staircase, the parameters of which fit into the formula:
B - H = 12cm.
And the safest design matches the rule:
B + N = 46 ± 1 cm.When
outer staircase must be placed at the minimum area, the ratio between its height and length of the projection kosoura should be at least 1: 1.
calculation section kosoura more complicated.For him, we need the following inputs:
- width of the march;Weight
- one stage;
- kosoura angle of inclination;
- number of stringers;
- length of projection (horizontal) kosoura;
- height of the march;
- length kosoura;
First we need to collect loads:
expect current load of the steps - calculate the total weight of the steps and divide it by the area of the stairs, and then the number of stringers.Now multiply that value by a factor of reliability - 1.1 and get the design load of the weight steps.
Approximately determines the maximum live load (weight of people are on the ladder or portable objects).This value should be multiplied by a factor of 1.4 - get estimated value of this parameter.
Fold the calculated load of the weight of the load stages and the time and get the design load on a sloping kosour.
order to find the right kosoura-section is necessary to calculate the values of the moment of resistance (W) and the moment of inertia (I).To do this, use the formulas:
W = q * a * L2 / (16 * 0,9R) and I = 1,3a * q1n * L1 * 4 / (EL), where
q = q1 * p / cos2α,
q1r - estimated load kosour;
α - the angle of kosoura;
a - width of the stairs;
L - horizontal projection of the march;
L1 - length kosoura;
R - resistance of steel chosen brand;
q1n - regulatory burden on kosour - the amount of the load and live load steps up to multiplication by a factor;
E - modulus of elasticity of steel - 2100000 kg / cm2.
Now select the table GOST-section necessary element mix (beams, channels, angles, proftruby).
Important!You can not use the rails as stringers.They are made of special steel grades, which responds poorly to welding.
if you are taking for the manufacture of metal stairs for the first time, do not neglect the calculation.Of course, experienced craftsmen sometimes manage without him, but only when the ladder fairly typical on account of their production of several dozen similar.
choice of material
stair treads that will be installed on the street, it is not recommended to do sheet metal - they accumulate in the winter snow and frost is formed, which makes the stairs dangerous.It is best to use for this purpose, or a perforated rolled rebar.If you selected the valve, it is necessary to make the corner of the frame and the stage to be welded thereto reinforcement segments at a distance 4-8mm apart.
Ready stage in turn welded to the so-called "mare" - a triangle from the corner with a shelf in 45mm fixed on the stringers.Before fitting the "grasshopper" is necessary to partition staggered according to the calculation.
Knowing the number of steps required to calculate yardage corner fittings and is simple enough.
Making stairs of black metal requires a sufficiently large set of tools, equipment and consumables:
- Welding inverter;
- protective mask for welding (plate);
- Protective goggles "grinder";
- clamping adjustable clamp (0-800mm);
- tools for marking metal;
- table for welding;
So start manufacturing the staircase.Given the fact that the work is done at home, and lifting equipment at our disposal, no, we will collect the ladder "on the spot".If you collect it, "on the ground", then pick up and set design will be impossible without a crane.
Even during the construction of the wall at the appropriate level should be prepared metal mortgages, which we now welds stringers.If the bottom of the ladder is on a concrete path, then it must also be arranged mortgages.Welded onto the lower part of stairs.
now be marked on the corner and cut it, "grinder" in pieces needed to build "fillies".
We weld "fillies".
Production and installation of reinforcing steel steps
When using rebar "fillies" must be done simultaneously with the frame level.Weld two right triangles with the lengths of the legs of equal width and stage riser, and then connect them with two corners, equal to the width of the march.From the inside corner welds pieces of rebar.The step is ready.
According markup applied to kosour, set the stage.Work should start from the bottom - so much more convenient.
steps made of perforated steel sheet
If the surface of the stage is made of perforated sheet is sufficient to mark a material, cut it using the grinder and grinding wheel to grind the edges.This is to ensure that none of your family members in the process of operation does not hurt on the sharp edge of the metal.
By marking set on stringers "mare" and cover their perfolistom.Grating price popular material that is also used in the manufacture of stairs.In this case, the installation process begins the same way as when working with workpieces of valve - bottom.
When the last stage is set, your ladder is almost ready.You can use it, but not safe - no handrails.
Production and installation of handrails
for the safe use of ladders, it must necessarily be fenced.The design of the rail regulates SNIP 31 -02-2001, according to which the stairs to the house of the metal must be equipped with a handrail height of not less than 90cm.For buildings, where there are small children, these requirements significantly tougher.Here we need a railing with a minimum height of 1200 mm and without cross members, based on which a child can climb fences.In addition, the clearance between the balusters should be no more than 10cm.
Cheapest railings can be made from proftruby with a side of 40 mm.To prepare the sections of required length corresponding to the height of handrails and their welds to the steps at a desired distance from each other.Then fasten the rail on top of the normal or profiled tube.The length of the handrail should be equal to the length of the march.For greater stability extreme balusters should be slightly thicker than the others.
Painting and corrosion protection
is known to corrode the metal, and therefore it must be protected from moisture.Perform this procedure must be in several stages:
degreasing.Damp cloth in any organic solvent and carefully wipe all ladder elements.
treated metal rust converter, which reacts with the metal surface and forms a layer thereon sulfate.
now primed and give it to dry.
Now ladder can be painted in a color of your choice.
«Beauty will save the world»
agree that the appearance of a ladder even after painting is unlikely to embellish your site.Fortunately, there are plenty of opportunities to make it more attractive.
In recent years, especially popular forging.You can order a delicate spans a blacksmith, but it's expensive, but you can do much easier.Every major hardware store can now be found stamped decorative elements.They are virtually indistinguishable from hand-forged, but much cheaper.Collect them from the beautiful composition you can yourself using welding machine and fantasy.
Before purchasing decor, check out its range and in a calm atmosphere scribble sketch.Only when the image of the future will be ready to fence, go shopping.This sequence of actions can help you save money on buying unnecessary items.
staircase with wooden steps - video instruction
Inside the house is better to make a ladder with wooden steps.How to do it yourself, see the video.