in building a modern country has become the norm in the construction of buildings several stories high, and to provide in these homes free movement between floors equip the ladder.Simple at first glance, the design ladder in a private house, which is able to make any master, requires precise calculations and understanding the mechanics of human walking.Miscalculation or by selecting the type of material used and the staircase may adversely affect the reliability of the design ladder as a whole, as well as the convenience of its use.On a typical interior staircase in a private house fit very organically, which gives it great elegance.
- Types of stairs to a private home
- Spiral staircases Open staircases
- stairs and rails
- device stairs in a private home
- support beams
- Construction of stairs in a private home
- Fitting stairs
- Dimensions stairs in a private home
- Choice angle stairs
- Installation spiral staircase
- Installation stairway
- Installation boltsevoy ladder
deciding to build a ladder inprivate house with his own hands, you must not only be able to handle the tool, but also have some knowledge on the elements of design and types of ladders.For those who decided to make a ladder in a country house for the first time presented in this article, the information will be a good help.
Types of stairs to a private home
making stairs in a private house on their own, it is vital to be familiar with one or another kind of stairs, as well as their design and operational features.Today the diversity of this seemingly simple building structure, as well as materials for its manufacture can puzzle master choice.But all is not as scary as it may seem at first glance.
stairs in a private house: Photo
The rustic building equip three main types of stairs: Spiral boosters and rails.Each of these types can be built both inside and outside the house, and each of them can function as an input, intermediate, working or passing the stairs.As materials for the manufacture of ladders used wood, metal, concrete, reinforced concrete, natural or artificial stone, plastic, glass, and combinations thereof.The choice of material depends on the purpose of the stairs, the possible stress and financial capacity hosts.Everything else, the choice affects the strengths and weaknesses of each type of stairs.
This type of stairs is most often used when necessary austerity space and where it is simply impossible to equip a straight ladder.When using these stairs, you can forget about comfort, but this is offset by savings in space.Often, these ladders equipped to lower or recover the attic and basement.In terms of aesthetics spiral staircases look very impressive and, moreover, they can be round or in the shape of a polygon or a square that gives designers the opportunity to use them in their projects.
Today we can see the spiral staircases in private homes with stairs, metal glass, plastic or wood, but they are usually full of metal, wood or stone.However, a good stone spiral staircase could not afford one.And it's not only the cost of materials, but also in the complexity of the work.
most common type of stairs in private homes are marching.High popularity stairway provides simplicity of design and arrangement, as well as that for maximum comfort when going up and down in its design takes into account the mechanics of human movement.The main disadvantage of a stairway is their need for more space, more than 3 m2.But save precious meters and install a stairway can be.For this purpose, the so-called rotary FLOATING with intermediate platforms.
Open staircases in private homes are made of metal, wood, stone, concrete, plastic or glass, using only one type of material or combining them.Today, reliability is used in the manufacture of concrete stairway.Such an approach is justified, since the material is available and cheap, and also serve for decades.But FLOATING wood in a private house have been popular before, and continue to hold their positions.In many ways, the reason is that today there is a trend of building homes from natural and environmentally friendly materials.
stairs and rails
name of these stairs comes from the German word Bolzen, which means "Bolt."In fact, such a step ladder laid on the design, which is attached to the wall with pins or bolts, walled or screwed into the wall.The main advantages of this ladder is compact and economical in the use of materials.The peculiarity and the lack of this type of stairs is the mandatory presence of a solid stone wall on one side of the stairs.
The design boltsevoy ladders used metal parts (bolts, rods, tubes) to create a frame and the handrail and steps to use wood, metal, glass, concrete or reinforced concrete.Boltsevye stairs, despite his ostensible fragility and lightness, can withstand extremely heavy loads.For example, boltsevye concrete stairs in private homes are able to withstand loads of up to 1500 kg, which in combination with a minimum amount of additional components is very attractive.
device stairs in a private home
ladder, as well as any other construction, consists of several elements made separately and then joined together.Depending on the stairs in her designs may be missing certain elements, but to create the stairs with their hands need to have an understanding of each.Knowledge of the structural elements, their appointment is particularly necessary in order to carry out the design of stairs in private homes.
This element consists of two parts - the tread and riser.Tread is a horizontal work surface.The size of the tread is chosen based on the convenience of placing their feet on it.But for many centuries, masters have determined that the most suitable size of the tread of about 30 cm. The width of the stairs in a private house depends on the length of the tread varies from 90 cm to 150 cm.
riser is the vertical part of the stage, and hisHeight should be between 15 - 20 cm. Sometimes, to get a beautiful design of stairs in a private home, do not step riser.
Important!For a classic spiral staircase width of the two ends of different stages.So the widest 45 cm, and the width of the central portion should be about 25 cm.
stair treads are attached to the support beams.They are of three types: kosour, string and pole.The first two types are used for the stairway, but the column is used in the regeneration of a spiral staircase.
stringers is a wooden beam thickness of 50 mm and a triangular cut-outs for the levels.String - is also a wooden beam thickness over 50 mm, but unlike kosoura, cutouts are made only under the tread with the inner side of the beam.Pillars spiral staircase can be made of metal, wood or stone, it will be attached to it stage.
This element design ensures safe movement of the ladder consists of two parts: the handrail and balusters.Grab bars are installed on top of balusters or attached to the wall.The balusters are pillars railing and fencing are also naturally the whole staircase.Handrails and balusters can be made of different materials ranging from wood and ending with a plasticized PVC.It all depends on what was selected design stairs frequent house.
Important!Marsh - is part of the staircase, consisting of several steps and handrails.Marches are called those of the stairs, which are separated by landings.
Construction ladder in a private home
before a ladder in a private home, it is necessary to develop the project.You can use one of the specialized computer programs, but you can contact the company, which experts for a fee, will perform all the calculations and make the drawings.With self-design ladder is necessary to remember some basic rules, requirements and design features of different types of ladders.This applies to the size of stairs, angle and location of the installation.
Siting ladder will largely affect its size, the slope and the view.But in order to get comfortable staircase and reliable, it is necessary to consider the following simple rules.First, measure the area of the planned installation place, and if it is less than 3 m2, then select a spiral staircase.Otherwise, you can opt for a march or boltsevoy stairs.Secondly, the most convenient is the direct march stairs, but the stairs are such great length, more than 4 m, and if you can not install a ladder, you can equip a turning stairway.Third, boltsevye stairs require close bearing wall, which will be mounted and stage.
dimensions of stairs in a private home
designing stairs in a country house, in addition to space for the staircase, you must take into account the ease of movement on it.Since the width of the spiral staircases made to do 100 cm. Of course, it is possible and 150 cm, but then increase the area occupied by the stairs.For propulsion and boltsevyh stairs width must be between 120 cm to 150 cm. This is calculated on the width of the movement of two people.
long staircase is wallet all its treads, starting from the first to the last.This applies to all types of stairs.For rotary take into consideration the staircase.
With a height of stairs are a bit easier.It will be equal to the height above the lower deck to the floor next floor.This last stair tread must be flush with the floor, and placed first at the height of the riser.
Choice angle stairs
considered ideal angle of 45 °, but, unfortunately, provide the angle is not always possible.Sometimes it is necessary to make the ladder at an angle of 55 ° or more.In such cases, consistently decreases ease of movement on it.
Important!The height of the riser, tread width and angle of the interconnected.So by increasing the angle of inclination increases the riser height and tread width decreases.And if the angle decreases and increases tread riser.
The above table shows the dimensions of the tread and riser, depending on which angle will be selected for the designed stairs.As can be seen from the table, it is considered to be the most convenient ladder at an angle of 30 ° to 45 °.
mounting spiral staircase
Perhaps assembly spiral staircases more complicated in comparison with the marching or boltsevymi.The reason for this arrangement Fan stages and the need for accurate calculations during installation.Those who decided to build a ladder, you must do the following:
- primarily do the stairs.If it is wood, then we take a broad rectangular board and marks it on the diagonal for one or two steps, and then sawn and round off the edges.If the staircase is made of stone, then you have to order in a special workshop for the processing of stone steps.It is possible to make concrete steps.In this case, we do the form and put it in a reinforcing mesh, filled with concrete and wait until it is completely dry;
- preparing the stage, set the vertical rack.It can be solid or inlaid.It all depends on the project stairs.If the rack is full set, then set the main pipe with a diameter of 50 mm, strung on her first sleeve and rubber calcination.In the case of whole rack after installation at the installation site steps slotted groove, which is laid in the further stage;
- now set the stage.To do this, we take a previously manufactured workpiece and strung them on a thin tube top and presses a wider sleeve and then breed stage fan.To make the rigidity of the assembly stage are interconnected at the edges by means of vertical brackets.Also, they can be fixed to the wall rails.For the whole reception stages infest slotted grooves are interconnected and reinforced mounting brackets and rails;
- left to do and install handrails.This is the most difficult stage of the work, as must be done curved handrails and balusters machined from a single piece of material.
Creating this kind of stairs a little bit easier in comparison with the screw, but in any case it is necessary to adhere to the previously made accurate calculations and monitor the quality of work performed.It affects not only the reliability but also the appearance of stairs.To mount the stairway must do the following:
- first tread and riser do.For this' mark of sawn boards and then treat the edges, making them flat and smooth;
- now proceed to the creation of the supporting beams - stringers or string.To create kosoura of wooden beams need to make a special pattern in the form of a right triangle is fully consistent with the size of the stage.By applying this template to a beam, marks the spot for the cut.Then they gently Scrollsaw.To create a bowstring to the inside of the beam at a certain distance marks the place under the slots in which we embed the tread.The angle of inclination of the slots must coincide with the angle of inclination of the ladder.For metal stairs most convenient to weld on the inside corners under the stage;
- ending with the preparation of supporting beams, set them in place and fasten it.If the project provides for landing, then install it first, and then the support beams;
- further steps begin to mount.To do this, first we set the riser and we fix it and then tread.As the use of fasteners and screws Retractable them flush.For metal ladders laid on wooden treads welded corners and fasten them to the same with screws;
- completed with the installation steps install balusters and handrails.
Installation boltsevoy ladder
undeniable advantage boltsevyh stairs is their simple design, which affects the ease of installation.The only difficulty with the installation - this is clearly and properly schedule space on the wall for fixing boltsevogo.To mount a ladder, you need the following:
- acquire all the necessary hardware, as well as to purchase or make yourself tread;
- on the wall mark the places for installation of fasteners.Then Drill holes and install the rails;
- is now left to set the stage.Start at the bottom.On one side of the stage is mounted to the wall, and the other under her set another Bolz;
- installing the latest step, proceed to the installation of balusters and handrails.