stairs that are built between floors are usually lightweight design.But on the stairs to the basement can not be said - they are usually harvested from prefabricated or built of concrete.In order to make such a ladder, you need to become familiar with the stages of its construction.And then the construction work was not difficult.
- choice of design stairs
- requirements basement stairs
- width ladder
- height ladder
- material for the basement stairs
- Building support
- formwork stairs
- concreting steps
- mounting racks
- Construction railing
- Podlestnichnoe space
choice of design stairs
Building wooden basement stairs or ladders construction of metal structures on the manufacturer requires consideration of many factors that affect the structural elements, safety and usage of finished staircases.
To select the basement stairs, you must take into account such factors:
- basement area to the place for the location of the stairs;
- Money question in the manufacture of the basement stairs;
- safe and comfortable movement of the ladder;
- possibility of transferring bulky items on the stairs;
- frequency of use of the basement;
- part of the premises in which the staircase will be placed;
- Match of the interior design and construction;
- Influencing staircase external factors;
- laborious process of building the stairs to the basement of his hands.
requirements basement stairs
Basement is an almost complete floor.It can only be reached by going down the stairs, providing communication between the rooms, which are at different levels of the house.It is important that the basement stairs were comfortable and safe in operation, and do not take up much space.Before the actual construction of the stairs it must be properly designed, calculated all of its options.
navigate the stairs to the basement should be comfortable.In this connection, the width should reach at least 80-90 centimeters, so that two people can safely disperse therein.As you have seen, the width of the ladder depends on the premises where it leads.For example, if sent to the attic, you can make it narrower by ten centimeters, and the width of the stairs to the basement is better to make a little more.
Ladder structurally consists of fields and marshes.Marches are steps and girders, which are called withs (bearing beams and bars, which are adjacent to the lateral part of the stage) or stringers (steps laid on beams or bars).Platforms are designed for, so you can change direction.They have the same width.
side ropes made be made of boards which have a cross section 80-100 200-250 millimeters.Steps formed tread, which put the legs, and the riser.Their width will depend on how comfortable will a basement staircase.Depending on the ratio steps of the staircase to the basement are steeper or flatter.It should be considered that the sum of the width of the tread and risers of the two is the length of the average human step.
assume that between the basement and the first floor elevation change is 300 centimeters.Dividing 15-18 degrees this amount, get a number of stages - 17 - 20. If you want to learn how to build a staircase to the basement of 18 degrees, then divide the lifting height of 18 degrees.Step height (the thickness of the tread and substep) equal to 16.7 centimeters.
Since the length of a human foot is about 30 centimeters, and the stride length 60-70 centimeters, the height of the riser get 14-16 centimeters.Thus, considering the thickness of the tread 3 centimeters, takes one step horizontally 30 cm and vertically 15-18 centimeters.
When erecting a ladder to the basement should immediately provide for the future conduct of a monolithic flooring and tile floor.This means that the height of the lower stage without the need to calculate the perfect finish of the slope of the stairs, plus the thickness of the floor covering.
staircase is considered the most compact - Coil, since it makes a big turn.Therefore, this design is best suited for the descent into the basement.But this is a fairly steep staircase, because at the back of 360 ° it is necessary to descend or climb to 2 meters.Tread steps can not be the standard: the steps of the spiral staircase into the basement often gets high and narrow.
You can also pay attention to FLOATING, who have a 90 or 180 degrees, which is performed by creating steps that shape is a trapezoid, or via exchanges.The staircase to the basement with a horizontal platform is simple to manufacture and convenient to use, because all of its constituent elements - straight.
If you do not have sufficient space, you can rotate the steps.To do this, anywhere, which optionally is in the middle of the tread, steps have to change its shape and transform from a rectangle to a trapezoid, forming a turn in 15 or 30 degrees at each regular level.
material for the basement stairs
No building, especially homes, not without a basement.In order to quickly get to the bottom room of the house, you need to carefully think through the design of the stairs.For the construction of stairs made use of different materials: the march of reinforced concrete, which is made on the types of drawings, wood, metal beam profile.
tree less suitable for the construction of stairs to the basement, as referring to the increased humidity in these areas need to spend a lot of money to protect the finished wooden stairs to the basement from all sorts of parasites and humidity, which reduces the useful life of the basement stairs.
What would you have done any supporting structure ladder, use in the manufacture of the basement stairs tree is considered an integral part of the decor.Therefore, all the wooden elements to be treated with antifungal agents and water-resistant, which increases at times useful life of the product, as well as save you money in the future renovation of the stairs.
Regarding the march of reinforced concrete, which is made on the types of drawings - like stairs to the basement of the house give excessive load on the load-bearing walls of a house.The size of a standard flight, usually with a special housing projects do not match.Therefore, these concrete stairs are rarely used.
stairs manufacture the most ideal material protrude metal beam profile.This can be explained by the advantages of this material: ease of installation, the possibility of self-production of metal stairs to the basement, construction durability, moisture resistance and antiseptic protection.
Before you start you need to do all measurements to avoid mistakes in the future, it is better to do a few times.Begin construction of the basement stairs followed with the erection of the support.If the stairs to the basement will be located along the walls in the masonry wall, you will need to start drilling in the side slot.On them you will be installing rebar.In this case the wall must be strong, because they are assumed to be a huge burden.
If the staircase does not have a side wall, then built the lower and upper support.And do it without fail to gain slabs of reinforced concrete beam and steel profiles.With this will have no problem in place of the foundation plate.
Make a formwork for the direct flights of stairs is quite simple.The bottom side is made up of wooden planks that are well propped up from below.Much attention is paid supports.Then attach the formwork and install fittings.It is necessary to carefully check the fixation of the formwork.It is better to cover a ready-made formwork film.
After installing the valve fits the turn of the stairs, look at the photo of stairs to the basement, how to draw on the walls of her flight.Then, on top of the frame and you'll be planting stage, nailing to the wall with nails.Do not drive in nails into the wall completely as to enable further work on the formwork.
steps to grab the board with a minimum thickness of 2.4 cm.If the width of the basement stairs up to one meter, steps should be further increased.Do not underestimate the pressure of the concrete!
boards of the individual steps need to be installed with a slight offset.Install the lower edge of the second stage for 1-2 centimeters below the top of the first stage.According to this principle made in this way the whole staircase formwork.Such differences will be enough to concrete from under the boards is not spilled outside.
If the board positioned differently concrete, which made the top of the fill will be poured from the lower levels.You should not over-mix the liquid concrete.Between concreting steps each time to do a couple of minutes break.In this case, the concrete will withstand the pressure of the next degree.
before concrete work moisten the surrounding masonry walls and the formwork, and also seals placed concrete.Finish the alignment of the individual stages is on the final surface, which later can be laid floor tiles.
Remember that the basement stairs is dangerous to operate without railings.This design is only allowed when the ladder is no more than 5 steps.Install handrails on arms manufacture.
Every millimeter of the design need to be polished in such a way to avoid when climbing or descending the basement stairs of hand injuries.The design consists of a set of handrails and stanchions.Racks are supporting or intermediate.
support posts, regardless of their place of attachment, divided into upper and lower.It is worth noting that it is best to make a baluster massive than intermediate because they must withstand a horizontal load of not less than 100 kilograms per meter.
distance between balusters should be selected so as to prevent loss between humans.If your staircase into the basement is equipped with longitudinal elements, the distance between them must be maintained at 10-12 cm.
to make movement between the levels of safety for those living in the house, you need to consider carefully the design of the railing.Railing but its main purpose, to help finalize the design ladder.Therefore, we can say with certainty that the railing is an important part of the overall device basement stairs.
If you plan to use the basement as additional living room, make sure that with the basement stairs and railings interior basement fully harmonized.
In the manufacture of handrails is recommended to choose for them to such a height that a person who has average growth, stress-free and work could rely on them.For this reason, the mark 90 centimeters is the standard height of the railing.If you assume that the stairs to the basement will move the children, it is advisable to make an additional mounting rails, which are located below the main.
staircase to the basement is a special kind of structure, which must always be carried out in accordance with all the rules and building codes.And you already know how to do the stairs to the basement.Every centimeter of the area is now a canopy of gold, so the space taken podlestnichnoe used as a mini-cabinet, closet or pantry.
for cabinets and storage height of the stairs from the floor is not very important, the figure for arranging a mini cabinet must be at least 2 meters.Podlestnichnoe space must be equipped with a door and walls inside the sheathing.As a building material can be used plates OSB, plywood and drywall construction.
is necessary to note that the sheathing material for a small office does not have to reduce the excessive burden the inner area and design.If the height of the space podlestnichnogo more than 2 meters above the door that you can build a mezzanine for the maintenance of small things.
At a time when the ladder from the ground to the upper floors and the attic have a lightweight construction of steel and wood, almost all developers to choose the basement stairs massive concrete structure.Developers who are less informed, decide to make the stairs to the basement of pre-engineered, while overestimating the formwork.