If during the construction of private country house or you expect the construction of several floors, that without reliable and safe ladder you just do not get along.Such a complex architectural composition, can be constructed from a variety of modern materials, however, has been for many years the most popular material is an artificial stone - concrete, characterized by high strength and durability.
- Monolithic concrete stairs: their role in the modern interior
- Choice monolithic stairs by type and complexity of the formwork
- calculation of monolithic concrete stairs
- How to make a monolithic staircase: the main stages
- formwork assembly
- Installation and mating fittings
- Pouring concrete structure
5. Monolithic stairs with his hands: finishes
Monolithic concrete stairs: their role in the modern interior
Ladder is a complex architectural structure, which should have characteristics such as security andreliability, aest
Elegant and delicate metallic ornate patterned stairs - quite spectacular, yet they can hardly be called reliable. excellent alternative injuries and a solid foundation for the safe movement is the creation of various concrete structures, has the following advantages:
- strength and durability;
- 100% safety and fire;
- quiet and stiffness;
- manifold variations and a wide range of ways to finish;
- individual design and reasonable price.
combination of excellent performance, the variety of bold design and stylistic solutions and ease of erection personally define success incomparable concrete stair designs in any interior.
Choice monolithic stairs by type and complexity of the formwork
Concrete is considered to be the highest priority material for stair design for comfortable movement both on the floors inside the home and in the regeneration of the landscape territory.
The choice of consumable materials affect individual preferences for margin of safety: ladders for outdoor use are usually built of heavy concrete and constructive apartment partition wall - made of light and porous aggregates.
- Ladders monolithic concrete does not contain elements which may become loose from the dynamic load;
- You will never hear an unpleasant squeaking, even as material for natural wood trim acts;
- Implementation absolutely any architectural pans - from simple to complex configurations of propulsion;
- No risk of fires;
- wide choice of options and materials for cladding.
concrete stairs can be monolithic or consist entirely of solid stringers mounted with concrete steps without risers.Stairs of the second type are different visual lightness and elegance, both in terms of technique, and in the decorative sense.However, experts do not advise to make their installation on recreational areas due to existing gaps.
It should be noted with regard to technical details of monolithic concrete stairs to the upper floors and verandas - such buildings are made exclusively at the site and at the time of construction, and compared to similar products made of wood, they are not set after finishing work.
Modification formwork - an indispensable element of any concrete stairs - and the procedure for the construction of lay design features and design of the future design of the staircase.
formwork assembly, as acknowledged by experts - the most difficult and time-consuming stage of the construction of the ladder.
most simple embodiment, consists in a device between the walls, eliminates mounting the lateral formwork while bearing walls perform the function - they are applied to the individual marking and fixed elements of the frame.
Construction odnomarshevoy ladder involves collecting items to one side end and the creation of a reliable base for it.
Even if you do not have the practical experience and training, you will easily cope with this kind of work.But the construction of the ladder configuration florid better Rely on professionals, as non-standard geometry of the formwork without experience can not be performed.Originality of the process lies in the manufacture of formwork from a narrow edging boards and plywood and the mandatory installation of a number of timber supports.
decorate odnomarshevuyu ordinary ladder can be by giving the lower rungs unusual rounded shape.
more complex by stairs made in odnomarshevom embodiment, when the construction adheres to the wall surface on one side.In this case you will have to perform and end frame to make installation of the formwork to support the support.
works filling structure with two non-contiguous to the wall surface of the Parties representing half-pace option of landing, rather cumbersome and complex, particularly if you intend to perform complex geometry and original decorating using ceramic parts made of natural or solid metal with elementshand-forged railings and elegant.
traditional option of creating monolithic concrete stairs for private or town houses considered reinforcement with triple safety margin that ensures maximum security and reliability.
building technology must take into account:
- safe approach;
- ease of ascent / descent;
- corresponds to the height / width of the stairs;
- convenient step;
- equipment fixings.
calculation of monolithic concrete stairs
As complex architectural and functional structure, any staircase structure must be constructed only after preliminary drafting and carrying out accurate calculations.
Design of concrete stairs to the house takes place on the stage of creating the drawings of the house.I would like to protect you from immediately most common mistakes developers - do not "squeeze" in the design of the opening 1,5h1,5 meter or try to create a narrow spiral structure for residents with a dense tall physique.
fairly steep staircase, ill-considered and risky fence railings, stairs various defects - these are the main causes of injury.
Before designing a comfortable and safe building envelope should be observed such features erecting concrete staircase as:
- specifics of opening / closing the front doors, and lighting;
- risk of narrow staircases;
- design long length design with the intermediate areas;
- use slippery materials for cladding steps (tile, stone, metal) requires a special rubber or wooden linings or carpets;
So, design and construction of ladders should be carried out taking into account the following points:
- Safe architectural structure must conform to the following standards: stage 80 cm x 17 cm.
- as the best indicator is the possibility of designing user-friendlyunhindered movement of two people at the same time, the ability to move furniture and other bulky items.
- ladder height must be selected according to the power of the upper floors.
- distance from the ceiling surface to any level - 2 m.
- Width steps should provide a comfortable step in, 29-30 cm;
- The angle must not exceed 45˚.The optimal solution would be to create a ladder at an angle to 30˚, since its increase is observed reduction of area construction increases the risk of injury and to move it becomes uncomfortable.If necessary, reduce the area appropriate to make helical structure or a monolithic concrete stairs with 2 or more of span.
- monolithic ladder width is 1200 mm, the width of the march - less than 100 mm.
- Development drawing monolithic staircase suggests compulsory registration of the presence and size of barriers and the need for fixings.
- Weight monolithic concrete stairs with the complexity and size of the span varies between 1.5 - 2.5 tons.Therefore, after the decision on the construction of the structure should reflect on the base unit.The most proven variant - the use of reinforced concrete beams and foundation.If the role of the base to be used for coupling the ground, the ground is compacted and is calculated so that the weight of monolithic construction does not pull on it with a force of more than 1 kg / cm².Do not forget at this point that the finishing steps, such as natural stone will significantly increase the weight.If the calculations it turns out that the load may exceed the permissible level, it is advisable to produce wood finishing work.
How to make a monolithic staircase: the main stages
building technology concrete staircase includes 3 stages:
- build formwork - a traditional type of work for the construction of any concrete stairs;
- installation and mating fittings;
- pouring concrete construction.
Building Construction Formwork
any concrete staircase rises to manufacture rigid and strong formwork for pouring.The best option is the acquisition of finished inventory formwork, used for the device monolithic slab.Thanks to easy adjustable stand, girders made of natural wood and waterproof plywood, you can not only quickly and accurately perform the formwork, but also get high quality and reliability of the finished design.
However, it is safe to assume 95% of that of the finished formwork you do not have.It does not matter!The main thing that is at your disposal timber in the right quantities.
To fabricate formwork at home need timber: timber-section 100 mm x 100 mm will be used to support and rack or Half-edged boards 30 mm thickness - for steps.Protection of wood from moisture attached waterproof mat made of polyethylene film or roofing material, or a layer of alkyd varnish.
Using screws, braces and supports, start collecting the formwork.Installation begins with the construction of staircases.Only after checking the horizontality proceed with the installation of the formwork under the marches.
exact calculation, accuracy and use of gidrourovnya guarantee a high-quality formwork without distortions and slack.Carrying device casing, it is necessary to pay attention to specific points:
- consider when installing props impressive weight concrete.
- If necessary, under the racks enclose wedges.
- To give a high level of rigidity they can be connected using the boards.
- Curves step or platform - a real torture when facing tiles.
Installation and mating fittings
Reinforcement monolithic concrete stairs provides additional rigidity and strength of the finished structure.To perform work on the reinforcement used fittings Ø14 mm A400S, Ø8 mm A400S and wire Ø4 mm Bp-I.Landings and flights are subject to mandatory double reinforcement.Longitudinal reinforcement marches (Ø14 mm A400S) should be laid with a uniform pitch of 150 mm.Using simple tools, you can bend it, to give it a form suitable for the profile of the site and of the march.
transverse reinforcement marches made of rebar section Ø8 mm A400S follows:
- at intervals of 800-900 mm from the points of emphasis in the foundation or landing - in increments of 150 mm;
- in central span - 200 mm.
to perform reinforcement pad should be applied armature Ø14 mm to 200 mm.Only at the points of support pads on the walls and in the intervals between the marches, the rods are mounted with uniform spacing of 150 mm.Use of a special retainer, made of rebar Ø8 mm A400S will help you to place two grid reinforcement at the optimal distance.Since the thickness of the monolithic concrete stairs usually does not exceed 200 mm, the height of the retainer should not be more than 100 mm.The upper and lower grids interconnected by vertical hook height 120 mm.You must install them on the longitudinal reinforcement in a checkerboard pattern.Steps are reinforced using a flat grid Ø4 mm Bp-I, fixed to the base frame reinforcement.The process of reinforcing monolithic concrete stairs is shown in the diagram.
Pouring concrete structure
When laying concrete formwork ready, try to do the job in one day, paying special attention to the quality of the fill.Using deep vibrator, you posposobstvuete accelerate and improve the finished concrete stair construction.
To make the solution of concrete you need to mix 1 part of cement grade 400 with 2 parts sand, 4 parts -mya gravel, add water - 0.6 and 10 ml of a plasticizer.Mix ingredients in a mixer is recommended.After the pouring, wet weight Nestle plastic wrap to avoid possible cracking.
monolithic stairs with his hands: finishes
monolithic concrete stairs, with its affordable cost and static can be original and different - aristocratic, luxurious and surprisingly impressive.External appeal depends on the quality and originality of finishes, overlooking the handrail.Using wood, forged metal or glass for finishing concrete staircase you will never get a standard staircase conventional multi-storey house.Here are some options for plating monolithic concrete stairs:
1. The use of natural wood will give a visual lightness and design will reduce the load on its base.An amazing combination of wooden steps, balustrades and handrails and highly artistic decoration in the form of elements of hand-forged construction gives a finished look and harmoniously fit it into any interior.
2. The harmonious combination of helical and kosoura concrete steps, lined with natural wood, gives the finished design elegance and exclusivity, charm and distinctive, unique style.
3. Facing the granite steps perfectly in harmony with the basic coating of monolithic concrete stairs, the price of which is quite acceptable.
4. Complete or partial tiling or wood paneling, the use of wooden parts of the fence.
5. Extremely effectively looks monolithic staircase with built-in LED lighting and original illumination.
In conclusion I would like to note that quality and reliable monolithic concrete structure is based on a thorough preparation for work.If you are - beginner in this business, you have to first understand all the nuances and aspects of design and competently perform all the calculations.Familiarization with the technological basis for further filling and finishing of concrete stairs not scare you too much difficulty, but still require accuracy and thoroughness.