modern country or summer houses are rarely one-story building, mostly two-story, three-storey and single-storey building with an attic floor.In this case, there is always a need to somehow make it possible quality of movement between floors.A good solution is a manufacturer of wooden stairs, which could ensure a comfortable entry and Bringing heavy furniture or appliances.Let us say at once - it's a tough thing.And if there is a possibility to order at least a draft or finished elements stairs from the manufacturer, it is best to do so.Well, if you believe in their abilities, have the carpentry skills and free time, you can try to make a ladder on their own.In this article we will briefly tell you about what designs are stairs, how to perform the calculation and how to make a ladder.
- design wooden stairs
- elements of wooden stairs
- Calculation wooden stairs
- number of steps and the height of the riser
- width of the tread width
- March wooden staircase
- length ladder
- clearance height above the steps
- How to make a wooden ladder
- purchased material for wooden stairs
- Set stringers or string
- Install steps and risers
design wooden stairs
stairs need to choose the design on the basis of spacewhich can be used, convenience of location, configuration and recovery, as well as aesthetic reasons.
Conventionally, all the wooden stairs can be divided into the screw and march.
Spiral staircases are used rarely.Basically, in an extremely limited space.The second reason could be the owner wishes - for aesthetic reasons.It should be noted that the spiral staircases little functional.For example, bring heavy furniture on it is extremely difficult.In other words, it can only be used for lowering - lifting one person.For its production need to perform complex calculations, since it will be based on a pillar - support.The slightest error in the calculations of strength can lead to tragic consequences.
Open staircases - the most common.They consist of marches, they are called "stairs", iejust steps and platforms that share marches.Marches can be one or several.And sites can not be at all, if the ladder odnomarshevaya.
Open staircases can have a different design, you can consider them in detail in the diagram below.
There are direct FLOATING.However, they may be half-pace odnomarshevymi and separated for ease of movement area.These stairs can be placed against a wall or build a wall at all.A characteristic feature of straight stairs is that they occupy much space.
Most often to save space and ease of use between floors inside the house doing half-pace swing ladder.Rotation may be at right angles (90 °) or any other angle, up to 180 °.
Marsh may have a curved design with a comfortable angle to approach the stairs.In this case, all the steps may also be turning.
also half-pace and trehmarshevye ladder may not have fields, but only the rotary stage.
to choose the right ladder for the construction of a situation, it is necessary to make measurements of space that can be used under the stairs, make small calculations and draw the figure.The drawing must be seen as a ladder is located, do not interfere with any of its elements and how it will be convenient.
elements of wooden stairs
In the above photo to identify the components that make up the stairs, and their names are listed.
stringers a support frame that supports the stage and riser bottom.It accounts for all loads.
Bowstring also performs supporting-bearing function.At the same time it has a recess in which the plant stage end.This structure is used on the one hand, if the staircase adjacent to a wall, and on both sides - if march clamped between two walls.Bowstring less preferred than kosour due to the fact that it is not capable of withstanding heavy loads.Therefore, even if landfall ladder to the wall is still trying to execute it on kosour.
Steps for stairs - wooden beams, composed of the tread (the horizontal) and risers (vertical).On the surface we tread stepping down.A riser is the vertical beam under the stepping stone that protects the tread space and performs a supporting function.You can take the stairs without riser, then steps will be free space, the foot does not hang back, but the design will be less robust and reliable.
steps may be rectangular, radius for a beautiful sunset on the stairs, turning at a certain angle to replace the separation pad and zabezhnymi - the first stage of irregular shape.
rails for stairs - wooden balusters and handrails.Their shape and size vary.Generally railings are made to order, in the form that the client wishes.
If the ladder over odnomarshevaya in its design includes support column or columns in places turning staircase.
Before you start making stairs, absolutely necessary to make calculations and perform the drawing.On the wooden stairs drawings produced, both independently and with the help of special architectural programs.The latter can also perform computations.A good solution would be to apply to companies that specialize in wooden stairs.So you can be confident in the quality and accuracy of the calculations.
Calculation wooden stairs
number of steps and the height of the riser
first step is to calculate the number of steps and the height of the riser.These two parameters are interrelated, but first we need the height of the stairs.
To determine the height of the stairs measure the distance from the base of the finished floor of the first floor to the finished floor of the second floor.If you finish the floor is not accessible, while its dimensions need to lay the basis of "the eye."Because the wooden staircase is just getting on the floor finish.In this case, we assume that the height from floor to ceiling - 250 cm, the thickness of intermediate floors with floor - 35 cm. Total 285 cm.
make payments, starting from the riser height.The fact that often the size of a standard and is in the range of 15.2 to 19.7 cm. It is believed that this is the optimum height for ease of use.Less - will shoot down a step.Most - too heavy to lift and complicated for the descent.From this range we take the average value (you can take any) - 17 cm.
Number of steps = height of the ladder / riser height;
16,76 = 285/17;
Since the number of steps can be uneven, rounded - 17 pieces .
Here we have two options.We can first make a small winders, and the other with the riser of 17 cm. And can count and get a more accurate, but the result is uneven.
For this staircase height divided by the number of steps: 285/17 = 16.76 cm.
So we can perform the same steps with 17 riser height of 16.7 cm .
is believed that the minimum width for the convenience of tread should be 22 cm, and the maximum 37 - 40 cm. If less - it will be difficult to go down, if more - will be off step.
For more accurate calculations there is a relationship:
- 2a + b = 64 cm;
- a + b = 47 cm;
a - riser height;
b - width of the tread.
try the second formula: 47 cm - 16.7 cm = 30.3 cm. This width is acceptable, it can be rounded up to 30 cm .
sake of interest shall count for the second formula: 2a + 16,7 = 64;a = 23,65 cm. This width is too small, so we use the data obtained from the previous formula.
Width March wooden staircase
In principle, the width of the march did not rigidly regulated, but the number of marches will depend on the place, which can be used for the stairs.
is believed that the minimum width of the march comfortable 80 cm. If the ladder will already have difficulties with the passage of fat people or sneaked furniture.Successful are the options from 100 to 140 cm.
To all design stairs looked organically, you can use this tip: width of the march should be a multiple of the width of the tread .In our case it is 60 cm, 90 cm, 120 cm and 160 cm.
To calculate the length of the ladder, we need only two values, which we have already calculated the width of the tread and the number of stages.
long stairway tread width = * number of stages (without the last - this is the floor of the second floor);
30 * 16 = 480 cm.
4 meters and 80 cm - a rather large length, which "eats" a lot of space.
So if you can not build a ladder in one flight and straight, have to change the structure and make it half-pace rotated by 180 °.Thus it is possible to do the separating pad, and steps can be made rotary.Similar calculations are most easily done in special programs, there is clearly seen the layout of the stairs.
clearance height above the steps
An important parameter.Beginning March stairs almost always falls from the ceiling, thus reducing the space above your head walking on the stairs.
Even at the stage of creating the drawing need to calculate the height of the highest level, under the ceiling, the ceiling.The minimum allowable value that can provide a convenient approach to the stairs, even the tallest people is 195 - 200 cm.
calculated by the Pythagorean theorem.
lestnitsy2 length + height = length lestnitsy2 kosoura2;
4802 + 2852 = length kosoura2;
230,400 + 81,225 = length kosoura2;
length kosoura = 558,23 see. Take with a margin of 560 or 580 cm.
How to make a wooden ladder
The easiest solution would be ordered from the project and are elements of the staircase, with all necessary cut-outs.All items will be numbered.After the stairs unassembled delivered to the construction site, the build of the wooden stairs to the attached drawings and diagrams.So you do not have to buy a special tool for cutting and dust in the house.
purchased material for wooden stairs
If you decide to perform a self installation of wooden stairs, start with the purchase of construction materials.
to string or stringers needed timber 50 * 250 mm.The minimum width it can be 150 mm, permitting construction of the ladder.
to acquire riser beam a minimum thickness of 25 mm, and thickness can be taken.
to tread the beam is better to take 30 to 40 mm.A can be the same as for the riser.
Handrails and balusters ordered from the manufacturer, or buy ready-made, as to make them their own and pretty, must have considerable experience, knowledge and skills.
Set stringers or string
beams that bought for stringers, cut off the top and bottom so as to obtain the required length of the ladder.Then, cut off from the bottom of the tread has a thickness of one, ie5 cm.
Important!The fact is that when we do the calculation amount of tread, we do not take into account the thickness of the steps.It really is not important for the entire structure, except the first stage - its height does not increase the thickness of the tread.
Scrollsaw further openings for the steps in the stringers.In the construction gon celebrate riser height and tread width minus 2 - 4 cm. Then transfer the pencil marks on the inner surface of the beam.
saw off the excess.It is best to use a jigsaw or a saw.But for want, you can use a hand saw.
kosour then puts in place, where there will be a staircase.Its upper edge should rest on the floor and the bottom firmly rest on the floor of the first floor.Check for horizontal gashes steps.
Important!Such stringers we need two, but depending on the load, which must withstand the ladder stringers can be greater.In this case, all the other Scrollsaw using the first as a template.
proshkurivaem all surfaces thoroughly.If necessary, frezeruem outer edges, making rounded off (for beauty).
top and bottom of stringers should be connected between a beam.For this Scrollsaw them a quarter top and bottom.Fix to the thick beam anchor bolts.If you can fix the stringers to the wall, use an anchor well.
If we use a string, it must be cut to the desired length.Then cut it out using a cutter inside the hole - recesses for steps.String attached to the wall anchors.
Important!Check the correct positioning of the string and kosoura the other hand, they must be placed at the same level that had no bias stage.
Install steps and risers
After stringers tightly secured, we begin to put riser.For this
sawn beams on the required number of risers of a certain length.Dub them to each other and sanded.
fix to stringers with screws from the front.Then we zashpaklyuem them or hide under a decorative element.You can also use a special glue.
When riser will be installed, proceed to the steps of - tread.
It also sawed beams on the number of steps minus one.Then the skins surface and they frezuem angle protruding outer edge.
then put them on top of the riser and the anchoring screws or screws.
Important!If we use the bow on the one hand, the stage is inserted into a groove cut into the string previously missed adhesive step edge and an opening in the string.
Install the balusters on the stairs and anchoring pins 100 mm long and 8 mm thick.
top fitted and secured with screws railing.
This work has been completed, there was only a painted wooden stairs.For a better safety of wood, while maintaining its natural beauty, you can take advantage of special clear lacquer.
In this article we examined the production of wooden stairs with his hands odnomarshevoy line.If the project involves the construction of another ladder, then the installation will be different.For example, for the first half-pace stair case is established and secured playground and a support column, and then set stringers, and stair riser.Some steps in this case may not be straight, and rotating and rounded.