Any owner of a private swimming pool wants to see it always a beautiful clear water.But to maintain a reservoir for swimming in this state is quite time-consuming process.After all the water should be not only clean but also safe, first of all, for the health.To achieve the ideal conditions for the adoption of water treatment is necessary to apply various techniques and methods of disinfection.
- main methods of water disinfection
- Chemicals for water treatment
- chlorine disinfection
- Cleaning "active oxygen»
- Ionization (cleaning silver ions)
- nonchemical water treatment method
untrained person is very difficult to understand all the possible cleaning preparations, and devices, so before proceeding to independent decontamination basin, is very closely acquainted with the recommendations of experts.
- Clean water should be not only on the dirt or bacteria and microorganisms, but also on the different chemical elements that have a negative impact on human health.Since the main tank filled with tap water, you can observe a large concentration of organic impurities.If you use spring sources, it increases the content of inorganic minerals, especially iron and fluoride.
first and most important rule - is to follow the frequent changes of filling swimming pools and additional measures as important to use filters and special equipment, which should say more detail.
main methods of water disinfection
There are three main ways to disinfect water in the pool designed for swimming, is:
All of these techniques have an equal right to exist, and the choice of method will depend on personal desires and opportunities.
Chemicals for water treatment
- This method of treatment is considered traditional, and therefore in some ways is obsolete.The main reason for searching for new techniques is that the technology of applying the reagent must be eliminated in the future product generated during the reaction of the reagent with the organic substances.
- Since such items are unsafe for human health (high probability of occurrence of pruritus, rash, allergic reaction, a negative effect on the respiratory, irritation and so on up to more serious chronic diseases).In addition, dangerous compounds influence not only on bathing people but also for those who is located nearby, as elements can have a gaseous state and in the air.
- most common drugs to disinfect water in the pool - this is the chlorination and bromination.In addition to the above listed their main disadvantages are low efficiency and the fight against algae and other vegetation.Also reagents are extremely sensitive to pH level and water hardness, which will have to constantly adjust.
- disinfecting the aqueous medium in a pool with chlorinated agents can achieve almost complete destruction of the majority of microorganisms.The most effective and bystrodeystvennye preparations are made on the basis of hypochlorous acid.Since this oxidizing agent in contact with the alkaline solution, it can not show the required properties.For this reason, the lower the pH of the water, the better the process of disinfecting and vice versa, respectively.
- Using such means, it is important to constantly monitor the acid-base balance (it should be at the level of 6.5-7.4%).To do this, experts recommend the use of several methods (each for himself chooses the most appropriate):
- measurement of the hydrogen content by using litmus paper (rapid tests), its color must be in the yellow or light green level, there are also test strips formeasurement of other important indicators, the value of the package (100 pcs) within 300 rub .;
- electronic portable testers are designed specifically for swimming pools, they have the ability to simultaneously measure the acid-alkaline balance, the level of chlorine, bromine and calcium in the water, the cost of such a device is in the range of 1-5 thousand. Rub .;
- testers to measure pH and chlorine, looks like a small container with two compartments, into which is poured the water from the pool and to the accompanying tablet placed (each in its own compartment).After a few minutes, the solution changes color, and comparing the result with the school, you can understand what the outcome of the test, rather than tablets produced using a special version of drops.The cost of such a device is in the range of 1 thousand. Rub.
- Check the pH must be mandatory.Firstly, it will help increase the effectiveness of various disinfectants, and secondly, will reduce the detrimental effect of water on the body and thirdly, possible to avoid an unpleasant odor in the pool, lime, corrosive processes and turbidity.Also note that the content of chlorine in the water should be at the level of 0.3-0.5 mg / L, this maximum permissible concentration is set sanitary standards.
- Do not forget to check the time and content of nitrogenous compounds.They fall into the water with particles functioning of the human organism (saliva, sweat and the like. D.) And in contact with the chlorine-containing substances released odor.
- Most of the cleaning agents with chlorine added various stabilizers that protect the disinfector from the damaging effects of ultraviolet rays.But the substance does not evaporate by itself, so it must be regularly added neutralizing clean water into the tank.
So, what are the benefits in chlorine treatment:
- most reliable elimination of unnecessary chemicals;
- lasting effect after application;
- antimicrobial activity.
Unfortunately, deficiencies in the method of chlorination more than advantages:
- not all microorganisms are destroyed completely, so some viruses, helminth eggs, many disputes are able to remain intact after processing;
- interaction with organic matter (sweat, cosmetics and the like. D.) Are new compounds which have a negative effect on the state of water, as well as on the human body.With a large number of organic substances (in pools with great intensity visit) Chlorine loses its effectiveness;
- such treatment does not affect the growth of algae and other plant organisms that appear on the walls of the tank;
- rehydration is necessary to use different reagents;
- chlorine treatment has a negative impact on human health, manifests itself in the form of allergic reactions, skin rashes and itching, irritation, difficulty breathing, in addition, secondary and toxic chlorine compounds.
Among the most popular means of chlorine can be called, preparations based on hypochlorite, gaseous form of chlorine and chloro-isocyanurates.
- Action bromine water similar to the action that has chlorine, such drugs also exhibit disinfecting properties and have long-term effectiveness.The smell of funds with this reagent is somewhat less than that of chlorine, but still not completely absent.It has a significant advantage, which is that preparations based on bromine do not irritate the mucous membranes and are able to operate at practically any level of pH.
- in water for pools maximum allowable concentration of this element must be in the region of 0.8-1.5 mg / l.On the advantages and disadvantages are similar to the bromine-containing preparations by means of chromium-containing, but are a bit more expensive, and expense them above.Do not share the use of this method with ozonation, as a result can form bromate which is unsafe for human beings.
- not recommended for open water reservoirs, as bromo decomposed under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, and thus has no stabilizers, moreover, quite difficult to store drugs.
- Typically, bromination involves the joint use of chlorine and bromine as bromine does not have the ability to self-oxidation existing contamination.As part of the finished products already be required concentration of all the necessary elements.Disinfectants can be in the form of tablets or granules are added to water and gradually dissolve therein.Allocated in substance, eliminate most of the bacteria, a variety of pollution, as well as algae.
It is a process of disinfecting water using ozone.This is the fastest and safest way.In addition, ozone can kill bacteria that can not be eliminated by previous methods.Also under the influence of gas it decomposes almost all organic, hit the water with the human body.
- This purification involves a few basic ways to get gas:
- using the reactor through which passes oxygen and exposed to UV radiation - the way simple but unproductive;
- by an electric discharge, ie oxygen molecules break up under the influence of current and form ozone (the most popular technology);
- through chemical reactions.
Despite the fact that ozonation some experts recognize the best way to disinfect, yet we should not forget that it is a toxic gas, which has a maximum allowable concentration of no more than 0.1 mg / l, which is not enough for high-quality water purificationin the pool.
Ozonation has a number of advantages :
- does not cause allergic reactions and other adverse health effects;
- effectively cope with the problem of water disinfection;
- quick results (in excess chlorination of 15-20 times);
- improves the quality of the water and does not give it the smell or taste, and does not change its color;
- at the end of the action again converted into oxygen.
course, also have their drawbacks :
- effect does not last long;
- not eliminate algae;
- inhalation of ozone may result in the airway;
- high cost of equipment (ozonogeneratora, reactor destructor and control devices).
Cleaning "active oxygen»
This method assumes as reagents used drugs on the basis of hydrogen peroxide (peroxide - a substance where oxygen atoms are connected to each other).Health standards allow content in the pool water of hydrogen peroxide is not more than 0.1 mg / l.The main advantage of this method of treatment lies in the fact that when correctly calculated dose not occur allergic reactions and irritation, and the preparation is odorless.
But among shortcomings can be noted:
- as ozonation, this method has a low efficiency, and the time within acceptable limits is unable to completely clear the water;
- does not eliminate the problem of algae;
- products based on hydrogen peroxide is considered to be highly hazardous (toxic) substances, because when they overdose possible negative reaction from the body - irritation and dry skin;
- to maintain normal acid-alkaline balance requires the use of additional funds.
- All reagents based on hydrogen peroxide are two forms of manufacture - a liquid (solution 35%) and solid (powder, granules or tablets).
Ionization (cleaning silver ions)
- Silver, as well as the above chemicals used for disinfecting water in swimming pools, thanks to the excellent bactericidal properties.Purification takes place during the sweep of water through the special device which is conducting electricity alloy of copper and silver.During operation of such a filter is constantly supplied to the electrodes of a small voltage, and eventually formed copper and silver ions.
- small portion of ions enters the water and contributes to the destruction of various microorganisms, but the main share of the ion remains in the filter, filling contained therein quartz sand.As the water passes through this barrier, it takes its disinfection.It is thanks to the combination of copper and silver ions is achieved efficiency of the cleaning process, as individually these elements are unable to resist bacteria qualitatively and inhibit the growth of algae.
- Health Standards maximum permissible number of charged particles in a pool of copper is 1.0 mg / L, and the silver ions only 0.05 mg / l.Disinfection effect can be achieved due to the special properties of these particles of chemical elements.They are able to inhibit microbial cells, not allowing them to develop fully, thereby preventing their growth and division, resulting in the complete destruction of bacteria.
disinfection This method has several important advantages :
- time-consuming purification efficiency;
- not experience an allergic reaction, and no irritating effect on the human body;
- method is quite easy to maintain;
- do not need to use additional medications.
Among the shortcomings can be noted :
- allowable rate of detention of the charged particles of copper and silver can not guarantee the quality of water disinfection, so is not recommended as the primary method of disinfection;
- at a high concentration of ions in the pool might impact on the color of the clothes and the hair swimmers, especially the lighter shades vary greatly;
- speed disinfection process is lower than ozonation;
- requires frequent measurement of copper and silver in the water;
- method does not guarantee complete disposal of contaminants;
- with high content of chlorine is sharply reduced efficiency, and should monitor the pH (the rate of 7-7,4).
Lack of reagent methods is that disinfection is required for such water, prepared in a special way, since the existing impurities sharply reduce the effectiveness of drugs.Such undesirable components include, primarily, manganese and iron.
- In addition, the more added to the pool of funds, the stronger the deteriorating water quality (acid-alkaline balance, salinity, hardness, etc.), and this, in turn, leads to negative consequences for the equipment.
- Although the reactants themselves can have a low cost, but costs for additional means sharply increases the cost of such processing.Also, not all of these techniques can be used as basic, because they require that a combination with other methods (referring to the disinfection by means of oxygen).
- Though chlorination is considered the most common method of disinfection of water in the pool, but still, to date, this technology has more negative consequences than positive.This applies to those adverse effects that chlorine has on human health.
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