Ladder is an important element of the basement or cellar, in fact it is carried out on the descent and ascent, and often these actions have to do not with empty hands.Therefore, well-made and properly installed stairs should be not only comfortable, but also to guarantee the safety of people using it.The article discusses several options for how to make the stairs to the cellar with their hands.
- choice of material for the manufacture of stairs in the house cellar
- main parameters of the stairs to the cellar
- calculate the size of the staircase steps
- wooden staircase to the cellar
- Option One
- second option
- metal staircase to the cellar
- first option
- second option
- wooden staircase to the cellar
- How to make a staircase to the cellar of concrete formwork
- Reinforcement Concreting
- ready designs
- staircase to the cellar Photo
ladder cellar is divided into two types
- standard or auxiliary, which is made of wood or metal;
- propulsion type - it has to mount the shelf in the construction of the repository, but it is possible to carry out such construction and existing facilities.
choice of material for the manufacture of stairs in the house cellar
- tree. due to temperature characteristics of the cellar this material requires special handling.This will protect the wood from a bacterial rot lesions beetles and other insects, mosses, lichens.Fix the result recommended glazing agent that forms a protective film.In the treatment, special attention should be paid to mowing and ends.This can significantly extend the life of wooden stairs.
- Metal .By using not a new metal is first necessary to get rid of traces of corrosion by the abrasive material.Then it should be rubbed with detergent and rinse with clean water.Steps recommended to paint 3-5 layers are suitable for both oil paint and enamel.
- Concrete .Despite the high strength characteristics of concrete surfaces, they need protection.They can be covered in a few layers of paint, or perform the steps facing floor tiles, but this option implies a large financial costs.Also suitable linoleum or special self-adhesive mats.
Tip: newly poured concrete construction is not subject to color, it is necessary to settle not less than a month.
main parameters of the stairs to the cellar
- width ladder , intended for the cellar, permissible within 70-90 cm. But this option depends mainly on the layout of the room, and if space allows, you can equip the ladderand a broader march.
- Clearance ladder the existing cellar is calculated from the lowest level up to the upper barrier (beams).If you built a new cellar, then this parameter must be a minimum of 1.9 m, but, of course, the higher the ceiling, the easier to go down into the room.In this case, the risk of hitting his head on the ceiling is minimal.
- slope stairs can range from 22 to 75 °.Here, the smaller the degree of inclination, the more useful space occupies this building.A steeper slope (45-75 °) is typical for Extra options.
- Step width in the range of 25 to 32 cm wider treads create an inconvenience when lifting.If this option would be less than the minimum, then the trigger would be extremely dangerous.
- stage height is in the range of 12-22 cm, but no more.
calculate the size of the staircase steps
ratio of the width and height of the steps calculated based on the average human step, which is 60-64 cm. It is necessary to lay down a dual step height and the width of the treadprirovnyat to step person, then the equation is solved as usual.
example, the most comfortable step height is 15 cm, then:
- 2ˣ15 + x = 60
- 30 + x = 60
- x = 60-30
- x = 30 cm (width of the stage).
Or you can make a payment from the next option - the width of the step, which is 28 cm:
- 2 + 28 = 64
- 2 = 64-28
- 2x = 36 =
- x 18 cm (height of steps)
Such calculations help determine the optimal ratio parameter steps.
Calculate the length of the stairs in two ways:
- on graph paper to draw a right angle, observing the scale.Mark with a protractor the desired angle (slope stairs) and draw a line.Measure the length of the normal line of the resulting;
- portray the drawing angle 90 °, for a vertical line mark a point corresponding to the height of the ceiling, horizontal - the bottom edge of the stairs.If you connect the dots, you get the hypotenuse, which can be obtained by calculating the length of the ladder.Such actions are performed using the Pythagorean theorem.To do this, measure the height of the ceiling and the distance from the corner to the point where it ends this design.For example, one side is 2 m, other - 1.5 m, then:
- a² + b² = s²
- 2² + 1,5² = s²
- 4 + 2.25 = s²
- s² = 6,25
- c = 2.5 m (the length of the ladder).
number of steps is calculated by dividing the length of the future construction of their height. If we take the ladder 2.5 m and divided by the optimum height - 0.13 cm, we get 19.2 steps.Here it should be noted immediately that the last step is necessary to design the bottom, so its installation is not performed.Upon receipt of such a fractional result you can do the following:
- 18 steps to implement the desired height, and upper or lower - to make the "wrong";
- distribute the remaining centimeters on all levels;
- last stage designed as a podium.
Below are the 4 most basic version of ladders, which carry possible even for a beginner, "builder."
wooden staircase to the cellar
to manufacture construction length of 240 cm, 60 cm wide and 30 cm increments need:
- for supports - 2 cm board 10h15h240;
- 7 Bar - 5h10h80 cm;
- 28 screws for wood 5h100 mm.
- base plate lay on a flat surface.From their edges measure 30 cm on top of them to expose the first crossbeam, carefully aligning the end connection.
- Fasteners made with two screws each stringers, following consumption of hardware - 4 screws for 1 cross bar.
- Likewise carried out installation and subsequent stages.Measure out the appropriate distance from the preceding cross.
To perform 2-meter ladder, the width of the march which is 80 cm and the height of the steps must be equal to 22 cm:
- 10h15h200 2 boards;
- 6h20h80 6 boards;
- 5h5h15 12 bars;
- 60 4x100 nails or screws for wood 5h100.
This construction is planned to install with a slope of 30 °, this parameter is very important to consider in its assembly.
- to the support of the future staircase you must first mount the bars, which will later be mounted level.To this is measured from the top 26 cm and attached bearing angle of 60 °.Why did you choose such an inclination - when the staircase will be installed in its place, following the slope of 30 degrees, the stage will be a horizontal position.
- Mounted bars 2 nails or screws, for greater reliability, you can use one more hardware.Points for the subsequent legs is measured in increments of 26 cm. Thus, fixing is carried out and the rest of the support bars.
- next step - installation steps.At their fastening ends are aligned with the rear, so the projection should occur in the front of the ladder.Fixing is carried out with screws (nails) to three points.
metal staircase to the cellar
Stairs from the pipes installed quite quickly and easily, is fastened elements can be welded using the machine or use inverter equipment for home use.
For example, to perform the construction length of 2.2 m, a width of 70 cm of the march, and a 25 cm need the following materials:
- pipe diameter 50-60 mm;
- for crossbars - 7 of rolled metal products by 70 cm with a round cross-section of 25-30 mm.
- From the top of the pipe is measured at 25 cm and mounted the first step butt seam, then with the same pitch and the rest of the installation is made crossbars.As can be seen from this "leadership" no difficulty in carrying out designs do not arise.
following method of manufacturing an iron staircase to the cellar is a framework where the steps may be of corrugated metal or wood.
It is made of channel 50x100 mm and Corner 50x50 mm.
- first of the corners should develop some kind of support under the step.Where one party - the width of the tread, the other - the height of the riser.
- angle between them must conform to the slope of the stairs to the floor.Thus, if it is 45 °, and hence between metallic element bias is the same.
- Number blanks depends on the number of stages, for example, if the scheduled execution 7 steps, then you will need 14 fragments.
- Channel set on edge and mark the point where the first stage will be located, and weld piece.Between each successive elements such angle should be equal to 90 °.
- After the support legs are mounted, they need to be strengthened.For this steel bracket is welded to the protruding fragments of columns and in places of their connection to the channel, thereby forming a frame.
- ladder frame is ready, you can now proceed to finish the march, as the lining can be used corrugated sheet or timber.This design allows you to close and riser space.
How to make a staircase to the cellar of concrete
Undoubtedly, concrete staircase for this kind of space - an ideal option.She is not afraid of corrosion with time and does not sag begins to creak.Installation finished concrete stairs, which can be a standard or custom-made sketch made during the construction phase of the building.
But if there is a desire to make her own hands, it is necessary to prepare for the substantial costs and time-consuming process.
Tip: here need careful calculation components: cement, sand, lumber.In addition, special attention should be paid to the parameters of the design: the size of the stairs, the height of the ladder, and so the slope. D. After the construction is solid, so it will be impossible to make any changes or amendments.
- First the so-called "deck" - the lower part of the structure.It is recommended to use a single sheet of plywood WBP (water-resistant variety), a minimum thickness of 18mm.Its lower part must be strengthened with the help of props, because it accounts for the entire load: additional set elements and, of course, a considerable mass of concrete solution.You can use the bars 100x100 mm or board 50h150 mm.
- further mounted flange, which is, first, to prevent leakage of fill and, secondly - is a place of fastening of support for future steps.These cross members form the final form of the stairs.The sides also strengthened design boards, giving it the necessary rigidity.
- timber to form themselves rungs fixed to the stringers through the end of the design, or you can use reinforced metal corners.A more secure mounting requires lower level.
basic requirements for construction formwork are:
- fasteners for use only screws, it will greatly simplify the subsequent dismantling of the structure;
- this facility should be very durable and resistant to when pouring the concrete mixture has not occurred to any shift.In the course of such work is not permissible deformation of the formwork.
- metal bar adds strength to the concrete structure.The preferred thickness, which is 10x12 mm, when a bunch of cells must have the dimensions 100x120 mm and 150x200 mm.Between a reinforcement wire is attached, such work can be done manually or use a special hook.To
- in operation did not occur the crumbling edge of stage, it is necessary to strengthen the place of an additional transverse reinforcement.
- Before starting fill all the joints of the structure is recommended to cover the thick sand-cement mortar.This will prevent the emergence of differences, thereby simplifying subsequent finishing work.
- Typically, when mixing a solution of the following applies ratio of cement and sand: 5 parts sand to 1 part Portland cement is taken M500, 3 parts sand - 1 part cement M300 and so on. D.
- first poured and formed the first2 steps, watching closely filling all voids frame.During installation, it is desirable to use any object that pierced the concrete mix.Thus, the air cavities formed are removed, because they can further adversely affect the strength characteristics of the finished stairs.
- At this stage, the concrete mixture should be subjected to vibration, then using a trowel or a wide spatula steps given final form.In the same sequence fill-styling-vibration and the remaining steps are carried out.
Just a few days after pouring, you can dismantle the frame.It takes place in stages:
- first gently removed formwork stages;
- then released sidewall;
- and only after two weeks removed "deck" design.The finished product is polished monolithic, plastered and puttied.
course, ladders for such facilities as a cellar or basement have the advantage - the minimum time and costs, besides, they are easy to clean and easy to move.
But up and down on them, especially if the bank in one hand and cucumbers, and in another - a bag of potatoes, very uncomfortable.In this situation it will be a dilemma - to balance or protect winter stocks.
From which to build a ladder and how to choose the optimal variant of the design, of course, to solve the owner of the cellar.
staircase to the cellar Photo