After the construction of a country house or villa there is the need for the construction of the outer staircase.Such design looks no different from the classic stories that connect with each other, but they are durable and reliable.By law, most reliable and durable concrete stairs are considered that are produced directly on the construction site.It is important to consider the device outdoor staircase at the design stage.Such an approach would properly position the structure and to make possible the secure outdoor staircase from the external environment.
- options use street stairs
- materials for outdoor stairs
- Street stairs with his hands
- main specifications
- Create shuttering
- reinforced frame
- Filling and Coating steps
- decorating outdoor staircase
- Repair outer staircase
Use Cases Street stairs Street stairs
very important in the economy.They connect the house with the territory and connected sites, which are l
street stairs and satisfied when using a high basement.Sometimes doing the stairs to the second auxiliary input to the next floor.As the housing in the resorts often use two-storey houses, in which the first and next floors are separate living quarters.In this case, the device is very comfortable outdoor staircase.In some homes, provide fire (evacuation stairs).
Outdoor stairs can be done in a suspended form, placing them vertically on the wall, so you can quickly climb to the roof or attic.Designs can be rectilinear and curvilinear.Long ladders can be separated sites.Very popular small spiral staircases that are level with only one hand.All stairs can be positioned at an angle perpendicular or parallel to the external walls of the house.
If relief has great elevation in the area can arrange a so-called garden level, which make the area more beautiful and provide safe transport.They may crash into the slope or speak.Speakers based on the special stage retaining walls, and embedded into the hillside - a busy and hard-packed soil.The width of the street stairs should strictly correspond to the size of the track.
For registration you can use gravel, boards, limestone, short logs, paving slabs, sandstone and other natural stone.As a rule, leave gaps between the steps from 3 to 7 centimeters.To avoid too much of the root system, it is necessary to remove the fertile soil layer and sprinkle sand section.On each side of the tracks can be arranged lawn that will look very beautiful and impressive.Selecting the most appropriate option for the street stairways cottage or country house depends on the availability of space, the architectural ideas and technological capabilities.
materials for outdoor stairs
input stage and additional outdoor stairs to the second floor are often made of reinforced concrete, which is a very reliable and durable.Concrete has a very high resistance to the effects of precipitation and reinforcement steel rods increases durability.These ladders are made of pre-engineered or solid when the concrete is poured into the construction of the installed steel bars.If you have solid ground under the flight of stairs, you can use the concrete of the highest marks without performing reinforcement.Staircase necessarily have to be connected to the ceiling at home as a standard staircase height of three meters, it weighs about three tons.
to perform the steps, you can use a ceramic brick, but it causes some difficulties during installation.If you want to make both width and height of the outdoor stairs were within the specified dimensions, it is necessary to choose the relative position of the bricks.The best option is to lay two bricks at each other pastels.In order not to go beyond the established parameters, use non-standard crop.Stairs made of bricks based on gravel-cement base or a concrete foundation.
Stairs can be made from metal, which allows you to perform the most difficult design decisions.As a rule, additional, cross street or economic ladder do exactly metal.In this case, the structure is assembled from profiles, reinforcement parts, pipes of various diameters, etc.Frequently used stainless steel.The elements can be joined by screws or welding.To protect the metal from corrosion stage, you can paint them.Sometimes metal formwork is filled with concrete thickness of 3 to 4 centimeters.The result is a combined construction and heavy, also protected against corrosion.Forged stairs characterized by high strength and durability of the original design.But they are quite heavy and expensive.
Sometimes the stairs are made of wood, mostly do it for wooden houses.To protect the material from rotting, it is treated with antiseptic and cover with waterproof paint.Fire safety is provided by means of flame retardant treatment.
Selecting the material depends on the financial capabilities and desires host.Be sure to take into account the purpose of the stairs, and it belongs to the general style of the building.Wood is better to arrange only in wooden houses, but all other options are perfectly combined with a variety of materials.Steps from wood wear fastest.Stone, metal and concrete are the most durable.Metallic and wooden structures are sometimes noisy when walking.As for concrete steps, they are the most quiet.
Street stairs with his hands
Let's consider the case of self-build concrete outdoor staircase.Before proceeding to the construction, need to do some calculations.Plans outdoor stairs should be in accordance with the main technical requirements.Pre-calculate the height of the opening flight of stairs and contemplate arrangement of inserts.Do not forget to include what material the fence will be executed.Run the project to calculate the size of the stairs - height, width and number of stages.You must adhere to at the outset the exact dimensions as to correct a defect in the future it will not turn.
In the manufacture of outdoor stairs need to be aware of some mandatory conditions and technical requirements:
- Street stairs should be very comfortable and durable for maximum security and fast moving.
- At the design stage it is necessary to take into account the burden, which will succumb to the ladder with a constant passage of people and lifting heavy objects with mass.
- width of each step must fit the human foot.The ideal option ranges from 250 to 320 millimeters.The reduction of this range will make the descent dangerous and uncomfortable, and the excess will require additional load when lifting.
- prostupenki valid range is from 120 to 190 millimeters.
- Ladders must be positioned correctly, ieit is not necessary to mount the stairs, where it can block the passage or create inconvenience other residents.
- recommended to arrange staircases with double displacement with a minimum width of 90 centimeters.
- with a narrow width side winder steps shall be not less than 100 millimeters.
- The angle of the stairs street should be between 23 to 37 degrees.The angle of 45 degrees is allowed only for emergency and utility ladders.If less than 23 degrees, it can be an inclined platform instead of stairs.
- Canopy will provide additional protection to the design of the external environment and to avoid injuries that can be caused when sliding on the wet steps.
- to prevent falls and convenience of moving the ladder height fences should be between 0.8 - 1 meter.If the stairs are often used by children, you must install additional support rail with a height twice below.The hose between the balusters should also be halved.
Formwork Before filling the stairs made formwork.You have to prepare all the material that may be useful for this stage - sticks, plywood panels, boards, nails.Lumber and plywood panels are attached to bars nails.During this design and watch carefully, that there were no cracks and gaps.To create a design is better to use waterproof plywood width of between 2 and 2.5 centimeters.
It must be used in combination with each other fitting smooth boards.In the future, it will simplify the finishing work.After pouring the finished design should not miss laitance.It may be common to the entire structure or to each step separately.If you want to get the most equal in size and height of the stage, it is better to use the second option.
You can make the formwork for only one stage, and as needed to rearrange it for the following.Each board set a separate step with a small offset.The second step is set to one centimeter below the top of the first.According to this principle it is necessary to build the formwork for the entire staircase.
concrete with such a difference will not be able to fall out of the board, as in the photo the street stairways.If the board formwork place in any other way, concrete can leak from the lower levels.For concrete formwork structure crushed during casting, on the sides make pegs-props.
Before pouring the concrete into the mold structure is necessary to put reinforcing cage.Along the stairway to place the steel rods, the diameter of which shall be 10 mm, and connect them firmly crosslinked.The best option for the reinforcement of the stairs is a net with a mesh of 150x150 millimeters.Metal frame will prevent possible cracks and faults.
front edge of the steps of a ladder march best to further strengthen the transverse reinforcement.This method will prevent their crumbling.Pour concrete solution too early and needed to establish a pre-planned locations of the cork wood or metal plate embedded.In the future, these plates will be attached to the railing parts that enclose the staircase.Thereafter, at the bottom of the finished structure is necessary to pour the drain layer, which consists of gravel and brick chips.
Be sure to check this layer to the formation of voids.If any - need to fill them with sand.Try as much as possible to condense drainage and compacted so that it is not below the level of the formwork.Thereafter moisten it.Before working on filling the streets with their hands ladder should always wet the formwork and the adjacent wall.
Filling and Coating steps
After the above steps, you can start pouring concrete solution, which is mixed in a concrete mixer and consists of cement, sand and gravel in the ratio - 1/3/3.It is not necessary to prepare a liquid solution too.In the corners of the formwork must be prepared to fill in a layer of concrete mass.Minimum height - 10 centimeters.After each concreting should do a small break in a few minutes, the pressure on the next step better retention.
After this procedure, be sure to align the stage with the help of special tools.In concrete hardening takes about two days.Formwork is removed after complete solidification of the concrete.After the completion of all construction stages performed cladding.To finish the concrete stairs perfect ceramic tile, natural stone or wood.
You have to remember that the stairs will be constantly exposed to different atmospheric precipitation, humidity and temperature changes.To finish is best to choose materials that are characterized by an increased resistance to frost, moisture and temperature changes.Prefer materials which have a rough surface, because they prevent slipping.
decorating outdoor staircase
If a small flight of stairs, handrails in the device is not necessary.For concrete stairs are ideal for aluminum or stainless steel railings.They are welded to the previously established mortgage details or placed in special grooves.In the case of potholes, sharp parts and chips on the rails, it is necessary to quickly eliminate them.
Along the edges of outdoor stairs to the house can be set small lamps with the direction to the bottom for safe movement in the evening and at night.Very convenient option with solar panels - they are charged independently.In addition, you can set the structure of the external heating cable.This will protect the material from rain and save time for clearing the snow and ice in the winter.
Repair outer staircase
As with all things, street stairs may eventually collapse.They may appear a lot of nicks and cracks can become loose railings, etc.How to carry out repairs?If the stairs of brick or concrete cracks, they urgently need to expand and immediately pour the cement composition.
have concrete steps can break away rolls.In this case, you can use metal corners, with which they are strengthened.Metal corners are embedded in the brickwork.If concrete steps slides from selected, the lower part should strengthen the brand or area of steel.Tread made of brick or reinforced concrete can be erased, in this case, is applied on top of the steps the cement composition of the entire steel mesh.
Wooden variant matched either with a special solution, which consists of sawdust and epoxy resin.In the case of loosening rack rails, socket should be expanded to fix them pieces of steel and pour the cement composition.If the entire length of the stairs collapsed bowstring side should be extra and attach it to the base with screws.In ploshchadochnyj beam attach one additional string.
If ploshchadochnyj bar also destroyed, installed inside another and attached to the wall at the same time destroyed.In case of damage to the roller screw it a new benchmark hardwood.In the formation of longitudinal cracks should pull their steel wire or consignment of wood.If you interfere with the creaking steps, into the seam between the step and the riser is necessary to insert a thin film adhesive is well greased.
Thus, a beautiful outdoor staircase will complement the appearance of the house and make it complete.Remember that one of beauty is not enough, so do not forget about the durability and safety of outdoor stairs.You can do any design with their own hands, if you strictly follow the technical requirements and all stages of construction.We recommend that you do not skimp on materials to then not have to constantly strengthen and repair the ladder built.If you find any defect should not wait and immediately remove it.