porcelain history and dynamics of market presence.
Artificial ceramic granite is a relatively "young" finishing material.Its history goes back only about thirty years.However, granite has already gained popularity among consumers.Despite the thousand-year history of ceramic tile, she has been actively forced out of the market, "young" granite.Every year, the percentage of sales in the Russian market, both in volume and in value terms, is redistributed in favor of the porcelain.And although so far the sales of ceramic tiles porcelain tiles are superior sales, but according to experts, this situation will soon change.This broad market acceptance granite was, of course, because of its positive properties.Porcelain is much more strong and durable material than ceramic tiles and even, what is most interesting, natural granite.As for the shapes, textures and colors, the technologies developed in just the past few years, can achieve much greater varie
Its composition resembles artificial granite and natural granite, and the usual ceramic tile.The composition of the ceramic granite includes the following main components:
• Quartz sand;
• Natural mineral additives and dyes - to create different colors of the final product.
technology manufacturing porcelain.
porcelain production process is complex and requires the involvement of high-quality professionals.In order to fine-tune the production technology and set up the equipment, Russian producers are invited to their factories expensive Italian and Spanish experts.
So let's discuss in detail only on the two main stages of production - pressing and firing:
1. Pressing.The mass of clay Feldspar, mica, quartz sand and mineral supplements undergoes a process of pressing under high pressure (about forty five megapascals) in a special form;
2. Firing.Next, the resulting compressed mass is sent to a vacuum oven where calcined at high temperatures (more than a thousand degrees Celsius);
3. Next come the polishing process (removal of the top layer), rectification (cutting edges on the perimeter to allow seamless installation), and others.
Differences from plitkok ceramic stoneware.
1. The visual differences.If you look on the verge tile, it is possible to see the layer "body" tiles covered with colored icing, ieis a clear line between the top layer of colored and colorless bulk of the tile.Porcelain is dyed throughout its mass, and is a homogeneous monolith with a crystal distinct shine on the faces.This granite is very similar to natural granite.
2. Differences in technical characteristics.Porcelain tiles vastly superior on parameters such as:
• Resistance to deep abrasion - granite refers in its characteristics to the very highest fifth grade by the standard scale of abrasion;
• Durability - on this parameter granite has better performance not only in comparison with the tile, as well as with natural granite.If granite natural origin may eventually appear chips, cracks and other defects, the granite is not subject to even minor changes and microcracks.For comparison: on a scale of hardness (in which the standard of measure taken graphite - is firm in one point and diamond - hardness of ten points) assigned to the hardness of porcelain stoneware in seven - eight points.Therefore, you can only cut granite using special diamond-coated discs.
• Immune to ultraviolet radiation;
• Resistant to temperature changes
Myths of porcelain stoneware.
main misconceptions associated with granite, is a misconception that granite is radioactive and therefore harmful to health.In fact, artificial granite, as opposed to natural, has absolutely no background radiation.Moreover, there are so-called "anti-static" porcelain types which can absorb radiation contrary electromagnetic radiation from household appliances.
Classification by type of porcelain surface :
• Matt - granite without any further surface treatment;
• Honed or polished - the type of porcelain, which is obtained by partial polishing surface, the top layer of porcelain is not completely removed, and partly.It turns silky, pleasant to the touch surface;
• Polished granite - is the result of the polishing process, ie,remove the top layer.This gives a completely smooth, reminiscent of lacquer surface;
• Glazed - type of porcelain, which is used in the manufacture of glazing technology, ie,the entire thickness of porcelain is covered with a layer of colored glaze.Above the glaze is applied protectionist layer (special embossing), through which anti-slip properties of granite gets;
• embossed granite - is obtained by means of special molds absolutely any billing.Embossed stoneware can simulate a variety of materials (wood, wild slate, brickwork, rocky slope, etc.).Also, longitudinal reliefs on ceramic granite used on the steps to prevent slipping.
porcelain Varieties of sizes and shapes.
Choice porcelain by format is very wide: from small plitochek with sides measuring five centimeters, and ending with large format plates with dimensions faces up to one hundred twenty centimeters.Porcelain tiles large size used for facing large and spacious rooms.For decorating table tops and window sills more suitable granite small format.
Manufacturers offer granite of varying thickness, from seven to twenty millimeters.However, the top seller is a granite thickness from nine to fourteen millimeters.
The form granite usually square or rectangular.
Designated use porcelain.
Porcelain is a versatile finishing material.If earlier it was used only for lining floors and walls less, it is now used for granite trim any, the most diverse surfaces:
• floors and walls in public and residential spaces - granite used both as a base coat, and inas decorative elements and panels.
o For example, a common technique in recent years is a granite wall decoration technology "boiserie" (translated from French - a tree).And granite is spread only to the middle of the wall (at about one and a half meters from the floor).But if earlier, as the name of the technology, the panels were made of wood, but now they are replaced by granite.To create such panels can be used slabs of the same size as the floor or to use large format rectangular granite.
o With regard to gender, they can now dispose of granite not only in the traditional way using a special glue.There is also a technology "Raised" in which granite is laid on a metal structure on an elevated floor.The design allows you to create a completely horizontal floor surface, except under it can hide any communication wires and pipes.However, this option is suitable only for rooms with high ceilings (at least two and a half meters);
• Facades of buildings - granite used for the facades of apartment buildings on a "curtain wall".Small houses are faced with in the traditional way;
• Sidewalks and territories around the buildings - because granite is highly durable and resistant to abrasion, allowed its use as paving slabs;
• Stairs, stairs, columns, kitchen countertops, and a variety of decorative elements of an interior (this is commonly used three-centimeter thick granite).
Technology granite cladding.
If granite is laid not on the technology, even a durable material will not be able to serve for as long as stated in its characteristics.
Thus, we consider the main stages of laying porcelain:
1. Fill screed floor, make it even, if necessary, strengthened;
2. Carefully study all the recommendations of the manufacturer of porcelain tiles using an adhesive mixtures.To familiarize with this information it is mandatory, since the choice of adhesive depends on many factors such as the type of premises in which the styling properties of the contact surfaces, porcelain type that you use.For example, as the granite has low water absorption property, then it is not recommended to use stacking slurries because they can not provide the desired level of adhesion with the surface.Considering all these factors and the manufacturer's advice, select the desired adhesive for mounting porcelain.For laying porcelain tiles in rooms with normal levels of humidity and temperature is normally used a special two-component cementitious adhesive.For rooms with high humidity and temperature changes possible (bathroom, kitchen, etc.), Recommended highly elastic flexible types of adhesive mixtures;
3. Puts granite standard technology.Thus the adhesive layer should not be less than five millimeters.Given the potential temperature differences, it is necessary to lay granite with so-called "thermal gap" between three millimeters to the expansion of the tiles are not deformed.If the room temperature is always stable level, there may be "seamless" styling (without gaps).It is possible to achieve the effect of uniform surface without joints;
4. clobbered joints;
5. Carefully washed out and we clean the entire surface of the floor.