substances such as solvents used regularly in everyday life and industry.They certainly needed in the process of repair work in the house, but the large industrial enterprises have nothing to say, holding some of the processes is simply not possible without the use of solvents.
- What is solvent and what is it used types of solvents
- Review solvents most commonly used in our country, their properties
- Review license solvents
- Areas of use solvents
- Rules of work with solvents
What is solvent and what is its purpose
solvent - a Fast evaporating liquid chemical substance or a mixture of several substances with organic nature possessing the ability to dissolve the viscous organic substances, thus forming a homogeneous mixture.Basically
solvent for coatings, namely to bring them to the desired consistency before use.Some colorants can not be used without a solvent, for example, having a high concentration and are stored in
quality solvent based on its purpose, must meet the following requirements:
- easily be mixed with the paint until smooth;
- after applying the dye or varnish solvent should evaporate quickly;
- mixed with the concentrate dye solvent should not start to respond to them;
- solvent properties should not change in contact with water.
In a nutshell, the appointment of the solvent can be summarized as follows: providing the convenience of applying the dye to the surface and further quickly and quietly disappear.Once they are used before starting work on the painting, degreasing countertops, as well as upon completion, cleaning tool.
Each item in the line of coatings require a certain kind of solvent.Observe appropriate solvent type ink is necessary in order to achieve a homogeneous material that will not break down into component parts, and make it available for distribution on the desired area.
solvents Solvents are divided into two types:
Organic solvents are most in demand, compared with inorganic, and according to their physical characteristics, there are the following types:
- trudnouletuchivayuschiesya such as turpentine.They are applicable for enamels and varnishes;
- sredneuletuchivayuschiesya such as kerosene.Most often they are used for oil and acrylic dyes;
- legkouletuchivayuschiesya such as petrol, white spirit, solvent.They are used for enamels, lacquers, acrylic and oil dyes.Working with this group of solvents need to be very careful and cautious becauselegkouletuchivayuschiesya substances are extremely explosive.
Most often, they are movable body fluids, with their strong smell, which is one of the major disadvantages.
The list of inorganic solvents include:
- liquid ammonia;
- sulfuric, phosphoric, etc. Salt.
organic solvents, unlike inorganic, have a number of serious drawbacks, including the persistent smell, relentless for quite a long time and flammable toxic fumes, which also can lead to serious poisoning.
Unfortunately, dyes, water soluble, more popular abroad, in our country is not in great demand because of the loss of quality during storage in a tough Russian climate.
Review solvents most commonly used in our country, their properties
organic solvents, in spite of its not safe properties in Russia are widely used, it can not be said about their inorganic counterparts.The solvents are divided into three groups:
Below we describe the features and properties of the most common ones.For hydrocarbon solvents include:
- White spirit is an oily liquid that has no color.It is highly flammable and has a smell similar to kerosene.It was dissolved indicators are not too high, but, in spite of everything, white spirit still in demand because of the relative low cost and non-toxicity.
- Oil benzene.The liquid that has no color, evaporates quickly, not water-soluble.She also is inherent in a strong smell, like all organic substances group.Benzene oil compatible with hydrocarbon compounds.Release toxic, flammable vapors, if exposed to air becomes explosive.
- Turpentine.Divided into Gum and Pniewy.Gum is the best.It is pale yellow, strongly smelling liquid used for breeding fillers and oil painting materials.
- Petrol.Refined petroleum products, has flammable properties is volatile.When a certain amount of vapor in the air can be detonated.
For alcohol solvents include:
- ethanol.He is thin, has no color, but has a recognizable odor.It does not have to attend a variety of foreign particles.Its vapors can cause severe poisoning, provided the big hit in their number in the respiratory tract.He is not only highly flammable when exposed to flames or sparks, but can catch fire when exposed to a high temperatures.
- butyl alcohol.It is used as a diluent for the nitrocellulose lacquer.Coating becomes luster becomes smoother and also becomes less prone whitening.
- methyl alcohol (methanol).Transparent, liquid substance, typically comprising an admixture of acetone and ether.It is extremely poisonous.
- Etiletilenglikol.The transparent, viscous liquid, odorless.It forms a homogeneous compound with water.Long evaporates, which makes it indispensable when working with nitro lacquer coating of which turns brilliant, smooth, can be easily polished.
esters represented by the following group of solvents:
- methyl acetate.Fast evaporating, liquid, mobile substance, which has a fire hazard and toxic properties.Boils at a temperature of 56-58 degrees.
- ethyl acetate.It evaporates not so fast boil at temperatures 77-82 degrees, has a pleasant odor.
- Butyl acetate.The liquid has a yellowish tint, and therefore evaporates long used if necessary to increase the drying.
- Amyl acetate.The clear liquid, has a pleasant smell, it evaporates slowly.As butyl is used to retard drying.
- Acetone.It has a characteristic and very unpleasant smell, very volatile and a fire hazard.
- solvent mixture.To dissolve nitrovarnishes concentrated to the desired degree of viscosity using a solvent mixture of ester groups.In this high-quality properties of the coating depends on the elements composition.For example, if it contains the greatest number of Fast evaporating solvents, the coating may become dull, but if you make a mixture of substances that slow the drying process, the coating will shiny, sleek, uncomplicated.
Review license solvents Solvent
there is a huge set that in order to distinguish between them, some of them were given a number, which allow to navigate in the names and choices.Consider the most common ones are:
- Widely used solvent 4 (P-4).In fact, it is a mixture, which included the presence of acetone and toluene.In general P-4 used for alkyd paints and lacquers, enamels and also based on chlorinated polymers.Components present in the composition of the solvent selected to have a positive effect on the consistency and the formation of the coating film-forming substances.
If necessary, it can be used for degreasing surfaces prior to coating, but if you have the opportunity to take the best for this because other solventP-4 is extremely volatile.
It is flammable, when working with him to be careful and use personal protective equipment.
- Even more popular is the solvent 646, and indispensable in the home and in industry.It is applicable to dissolve and as a degreaser, is used in many areas, including in and repair shops.Solvent 646 is excellent quality characteristics.It includes a list of components, due to which it becomes a multi-functional, can dissolve many different chemicals.
solvent 646 has a yellowish color and a pungent smell, evaporates quickly.In its composition the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, esters.In the course of its use must be very careful becausebecause of its high activity easily spoil the previous layers of dye.Sometimes, because of the properties of the solvent 646 is replaced by even weaker.
Without it manufacture and use of a plurality of types of paints and varnishes.646 or solvent used during production of the products or are diluted before use to the desired consistency.He also indispensable for breeding of some fillers.
paint diluted 646th solvent by drying becomes shiny and smooth.The enamel and lacquer coating in which it was used, when applied easily and quickly grasped, forming a film.When the solvent evaporates 646, the smell disappears.
Another advantage, thanks to which consumers will love this solvent - a price that, for all its positive characteristics is quite low, as well as the presence in the public domain - you can buy a 646 solvent in each building supermarkets.
- as good solvent properties is 2 (PC-2).It is a clear liquid having a pale yellow color.It evaporates quickly.In its structure contains xylene and white spirit.They dissolve oil paints, bitumen paints, enamels.It emits highly toxic fumes.Working with MS-2 should always protect the skin and the respiratory tract and eyes.Just pair the harmful effects on the nervous system, internal organs, blood and bone marrow, getting into the body, not only via the respiratory tract, but also through the skin.
Besides the influence of the internal substance may have and external, such as a rash appeal with a long touch.
flammable substance, the accumulation of vapors in air may explode.
Areas of use solvents
As noted above, the paint thinner is needed for the following works:
- breeding or highly thickened enamel and paint materials;
- cleaning items or clothing soiled with paint;
- cleaning tool used in the paint application.
Solvents used in many areas.For each type is its own.For example, acetone advantageously employ during synthesis of polycarbonates, epoxy resins and polyurethanes.Dissolve with it oil, natural resins, polyacrylates, chlorinated rubber, as well as fats, waxes, rubber.
White spirit is applicable for all paint materials.Suitable for oil paints, lacquers, enamels, primers, automotive polish.They degreased surfaces cleaned instrument.
kerosene, gasoline and other hydrocarbons, are used to dissolve the fats, oils, paraffin waxes.
solvents belonging to the group of esters, such as ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, dissolved polar synthetic resin tserrizin.
solvents from the group alcohols, ethyl, butyl, methyl and the other is used for the production of lacquers, as well as to dissolve the polyester resins and nitrocellulose.
Rules of work with solvents
Almost all organic solvents have an effect varying degrees of gravity on human health, depending on the species.To working with them is not affected by the toxic fumes, you must strictly observe safety precautions:
- use during work personal protective equipment such as gloves, masks, goggles, etc .;
- in contact with skin, wash immediately follows it until it has had time to act, or has had a minimal impact;
- provide access to the premises adequate fresh air;
- necessary to control the temperature in the room, becausesome solvents by contact with warm air become explosive;
- also be taken into account combustibility and flammability of these substances is unacceptable conduct work near open flames, smoking is just as dangerous, or simply the presence of nearby hot objects;
- solvents should be stored in a cool place, in small bottles or cans, which must be the label;
- all containers should be stoppered up, it is unacceptable lying on the side or bottom stopper.