One of the most common materials in the world today accurately be called wood.From it to build houses, baths or pergolas, building fences and make furniture, and wood is used for interior and exterior finishes in individual housing and public buildings.This material boasts many advantages, among which the most important is its environmental friendliness and accessibility.But along with these positive qualities are present and negative - a risk of fire, the possibility of decay and high water absorption.This article will talk about the means and ways to protect wood.
- Factors affecting the wood
- protect the wood from moisture
- Methods of application of funds to protect the wood from rotting
- Fire protection
- Methods of application retardants
- protect wood fromfungus, mold and insects
- Methods of application of antiseptic
- UV protection
- Sequence application solutions for woodworking
- Manufacturers and product range
- Popular protective equipment for wood
- Selection Criteria
Since ancient times wooden buildings and structures sought to protect, soaking logs and planks different compositions based on the vinegar or salt.Modern advances in technology and chemical industry can create more robust multicomponent compositions that can effectively resist various unfavorable factors, permanently protecting the wood and prolong its service life.
Factors affecting the wood
Wood - is a specific material that is demanding application conditions.If you use must take into account a lot of nuances, protecting buildings from the adverse effects that can significantly shorten the life of wooden structures.
- First of all, it should be noted that the tree belongs to the "living" product containing moisture and, therefore, its percentage can vary depending on weather conditions.When moisture wood products absorb water from the air and the environment, while their volume increases (swelling), and in the dry season the opposite - dry out, losing in size.
- This may greatly affect the building, so if time does not protect the wood, then the humidity fluctuations affected the whole structure erected.Therefore, one of the main negative factors include humidity (rain, fog).It is necessary to reduce the ability of boards and logs to moisture absorption, but without altering their natural ability to "breathe."
- also humid and without air material can start to rot, is formed on the surface of the mold, fungi, mosses begin to grow different.In addition, they can be got insect pests such as bark beetles, long-horned beetles, carpenter, borers and termites, making the moves in the tree maze, from which the port is not only the appearance, but also its structure.So, to the following factors have a negative impact can be attributed microorganisms and insects. order to prevent their development, experts recommend treating wooden structures different antiseptic formulations.
- Another dangerous factor is fire .The fires annually destroy hundreds of buildings, so it is important to protect the structures made of wood with special means - fire retardant, which will prevent the spread of combustion.
- In addition, the wood is often affected by exposure to ultraviolet radiation .Intense sunlight is dangerous for a wooden surface, which gradually begins to break down.Especially detrimental effects of UV rays have a lignin (a polymer compound in plant structure providing firmness and hardness), change the structure, color and density of the building material, therefore, it is necessary to take preventive measures in time.
From each of these factors in the modern world there is a specially designed remedy.Unfortunately, not yet invented generic formulations that protect directly from everything, so, on the basis of where wood products are used, and should be selected protective drugs.
protect the wood from moisture
- High humidity is detrimental to the tree if its contents for a long time more than 20-30%, the wood starts to crumble.Moreover, if the product to dry rapidly, then it is likely that it will begin to flake, crack and change the appearance and shape (warp).Moisture has an adverse impact on products from almost all types of wood, except may only be tropical trees such as kusiya (billing) azobe, Ipe, Cumaru, and some others, of which most are manufactured decking.
Even well-dried wood material is not treated with any special means, eventually begins to absorb moisture from the air, is called hygroscopic properties.Depending on the type of wood and on the quality of the drying, the absorbent properties vary.
There is such a thing as intracellular moisture on which share of wood products in the following categories:
- wet with humidity of 100% or more, there is a prolonged contact with water, wood products;
- freshly cut, with a humidity of 50-100%, the rate may vary depending on the time of year in which the tree was cut down, so the products harvested in winter drier and firmer;
- air-dry, with humidity of 15-25% is possible if long storage in air;
- room-dry, with a moisture content of 5-10%, when stored in enclosed ventilated and heated rooms;
- dry, with a moisture content of 0-5% may be achieved only with special drying apparatus.
In construction recommended wood moisture content of which is in the range of 10-15%, since the increase of this indicator reduced strength quality.It is important to protect the timber further processing stages rather than in the final structure.Medications to reduce vlagopogloschaemosti matter called repellents.All developed water-repellent products can be divided into two main groups:
- compounds forming on the surface of the film , they do not have a long duration of action, so you need to periodically repeat the process;
- compounds penetrate into the pores of the wood , these tools provide a more stable defense and form a durable barrier.
Important: water repellents do not change the appearance of the material, their main function is the long-term conservation of wood against water vapor and moisture.Water falls just rolls off the surface and forms a wet footprints and stains.Furthermore, many agents are able to increase the frost resistance of the wood, so that in winter on the products are not formed deep cracks.
manufacturers to produce products that differ in composition, structure and methods of application.Some means may be in the form of a paste, and the other is an oil impregnation.
Methods of application of funds to protect the wood from rotting
- surface to be treated, cleaned of dirt and dust, as well as existing oil and grease.Hydrophobic film forming agent is applied using a roller, brush or spray, depending on the density of the drug.
- water repellent should be applied at a time over the entire surface without gaps and without too many layers.Allowed to carry out work at temperatures from +5 to +30 degrees.
- efficacy was seen after 15-30 hours, up to this point, it is desirable to protect the processed product from moisture, wind and sunlight.Particular attention should be paid to the end of the planks and logs.
- Penetrating water repellents are applied in several stages, each layer prosushivaya 30-180 min.If possible, the processed materials are best for a short time immersed in a tank with means for its deeper penetration into the wood structure.Conformal compositions necessarily used in the construction of facades made of wood.
most terrible and dangerous enemy not only of wood but fire is a person.Chemical industry is trying to create a variety of flame retardants that make products and structures made of wood fireproof.Of course, it is impossible to completely eliminate the flammability of the material means only increase while non-incendive wood.
Flame retardants are available as:
- liquid formulations , which include:
- varnishes - form a thin transparent film that preserves the texture of wood;
- impregnation - the aqueous solution of salts used as a composition for deep penetration;
- enamel paints - form a thin layer of color and give a decorative look.
- solid formulation , which include:
- filling - flowing powdery substances;
- wash - pasty substance, a non-decorative properties.
Impregnating considered the most effective protective agents.Also, all the facilities are divided into products for deep penetration and products for surface treatment.For external processing approach (weathering), for internal processing (neatmosferoustoychivymi) and agressivnoustoychivye (operated under the influence of aggressive environment - vapors, gases).
main distinctive ability to flame retardants considered how they work:
- active - are substances that produce non-combustible gases, which impede the free access of oxygen to the surface, thus reducing the spread of flame.The composition of such funds was added aqueous solutions of salts, which are under the influence of high temperature melt and form a protective layer that prevents the penetration of fire;
- passive - form a porous structure of the substrate and retain the mechanical properties of wood in fire.These, in turn, can be subdivided into the intumescent compositions and nevspuchivayuschie.
Important: flame retardants for wood protection are mandatory for use in residential buildings, especially in the processing of the internal parts of buildings - windows, door frames, wooden walls and partitions.
flame retardants do not alter the structure of the wood material, but sometimes there may be a slight toning.On top of the plaster can be applied almost any other substance - paints, primers, plasters and so on.
Methods of application retardants
highest quality protection is provided composition applied in industrial environments, but also independent use may help prevent the terrible consequences of a fire.
- Typically, flame retardants are applied to the surface method using a brush or roller, as a manufacturer releases funds in aerosol cans.In the treatment of poorly dried wood it is recommended to use a water-soluble flame retardants, as organo compounds will not be able to penetrate deep into the material.The moisture of the processed products should not exceed 15%.
- Any flame retardants are applied to the wood in the finished structure, which in the future is not expected to be disturbed.Before impregnation, it is necessary to remove all surface dirt, dust and various substances which prevent deeper penetration of the solution into the wood structure.If the treatment is carried out in an enclosed space, it should comply with the security measures: use of personal protective equipment (mask, costume), and after treatment ventilate the area.
- ambient temperature must be more than 5 degrees, and humidity do not exceed 70%, and is not recommended for treatment under intense sunlight or on cloudy and rainy days.Fire protection products are applied evenly continuous layer without sagging and omissions, places particular emphasis on the connection details.For better surface bonding solution retardant can be slightly warmed.
- If workpieces of small size, is allowed to carry out immersion in fire-retardant solutions.To this end in a container filled with medium and at least 30-60 minutes immersed object to be treated.It is important to ensure that the liquid level is above the workpiece 8-10 cm., Depending on the expert advice in such a solution timber must withstand up to 24 hours.
- is recommended to re-impregnation after 2-3 years of service as a repeated treatment only improves the effectiveness of protection.If you need a temporary removal of the flame retardant layer, for further use should be made additional processing.
protect the wood from mold, mildew and insects
- Adverse climatic events - rainfall, temperature fluctuations, intense solar illumination may adversely affect the structure of wood, leading to the emergence of raspadochnyh processes of rot, moldor fungi.If the lesion is too extensive to save the wooden structure is practically impossible.It therefore should be preventive treatment using preservatives which may be in liquid or paste form.
- Antiseptics for wood protection does not kill bacteria, they only prevent them from spreading.Therefore, if the process of the growth of microorganisms in the active phase, the antiseptic treatment should be done only after the use of special hard drugs - fungicides.
- logs and planks should always be under the protection of antiseptics: the first time to cover their transport, especially if you plan long-term storage of the material.Repeatedly they are processed after the final assembly and stripping.Over the antiseptic can be applied paint materials.
- In addition to protecting against the development of micro-organisms capable of antiseptics to prevent insect attack, which represent a great danger to wooden structures, they can in a short time is almost completely destroy the wood furniture, wall or ceiling in a house.Species such bugs a lot, but almost all without problems coping special agents used as preventive measures.If the structure of the wood and interior were not treated beforehand and the following vital parasites, it is necessary to apply the insecticidal solution.
Methods of application of antiseptic
- Anteseptirovanie held at zero temperature (5 degrees) on a clear, dry day.Apply the solution to the surface to be in multiple layers.Each subsequent layer is applied after the full absorption of funds to the required depth, but not allowing the drying of the previous layer.
- number of cycles will depend on the extent of wood, as a preventive measure, many ready-made solutions are diluted with water in the recommended ratio of 1: 3.