reason to change the wiring, there may be many.The first and foremost is that the circuit wiring and cable properties in Soviet buildings not designed for a large number of powerful electronics.But all the benefits of civilization are added and added in our homes.It does not go unnoticed.Aluminum wiring section of which is not based on the total power of today's consumers, quickly starts to fail, overheat.The second reason - the venerable age of the wiring.The warranty period is 20 years wires.After this, the rapid destruction of the insulation, resulting in arcing and short-circuiting.The third reason - the lack of grounding in the old wiring.All this together can go a major repair and replacement of electrical wiring, which entails enormous waste.But do not despair.To be able to save on the work of experts, we describe how the wiring is replaced with his own hands.
- change the old wiring or new paving scheme
- new wiring
- buy wire guard, junction box, RCD and automatic
- Install junction box
- Installation hidden wiring
- Wiring in cable ducts
- Replacing the wiring with their hands: Video - User
change the old wiring or pave new
Immediately it should be noted that replacing the wiring part makes no sense.If we decide to change, to change something completely up to the panel, with the replacement of sockets and switches.There is only one exception - a temporary measure.If there was a broken wire in a particular place, and you're not going to do the repair, it is quite possible the repair and replacement of electrical wiring only on this site.
Before starting to replace wiring throughout the house or apartment, you must find out the outline of her napkin.It may be that there is no "replacement" of the old to the new will not work, and have cut off the old line completely to make a new layout.It depends on how old the wiring has been implemented.
Some model homes posted odds on different premises on the floor in special Grooves , performed at the factory.Top hardwood or parquet flooring on joists.For switches and sockets or wires are raised under plaster, or cutting grooves or voids in floors.By Lighting - in the interstices of overlap.If you do not intend to disrupt the floor, then the replacement of the wiring will have to forget.You will need to "cut" and pave her new devices to consumers and other, more affordable way.
If wiring passes initially cutting grooves in the walls , replace it will not be a big puzzle, but will have to work hard to extract it from the plaster.
Replacement wirings - the easiest job.Did not even have to do the repair.
Once found ways in which the wiring is in the apartment, you can determine which ready Grooves or installation location raspredkorobok we can use when replacing wiring and which are not.
new wiring scheme
Complete replacement wiring begins with drawing up a new scheme wiring.To begin with determine how wiring will be installed: open, closed or combined (in cable ducts).Next, you need to draw on a paper plan of the apartment, is shown the place where there is consumer electronics, where the planned installation of sockets and switches, lights, junction box where needed.
outlets should be installed in places where there are large appliances.The number of living rooms is calculated according to this rule: for every 6 m2 premises must fall 1 socket.This rule does not work for food: it should be less than 3 outlets 6 m2.After all, remember, it was on the largest number of kitchen appliances: refrigerator, freezer, microwave, induction cooker, electric kettle and others.By the way, for the appliance requires a separate outlet with a power cable of at least 4 mm2, and may need 6 mm2, depending on the capacity plate.All other outlet in the kitchen is better positioned next to the permanently installed equipment.
installation height of sockets is not strictly regulated.It can be installed at a distance of 20 - 30 cm from the floor, as you can and above - 80 cm or 1 m. It depends on the convenience.The only limitation - you can not mount the socket is too close to the floor, or at the time of the flooding problems may occur.The toilet installation of sockets is prohibited, in the bathroom - is permitted only through a special distribution transformer.
switches are installed directly at the entrance to the room next door, at least 15 cm away from the doorway.To door did not prevent them to use, it is mounted on the part of the porch, not loops.The height of the switches is not strictly regulated, some sets of 0.9 m from the floor, some 1.5 m - as someone more convenient.
Each room is necessary to calculate the total power of electrical appliances.
Table electrical power .
If the same room is a lot of powerful instruments, they need to take individual lines with guns off.
look under the scheme location of sockets and switches, where it is convenient to place a junction box so that they are available.We put them on the plan.Direction wiring should be strictly vertical or horizontal, are not allowed laying diagonally or at a different angle than 90 °.
further broken down into groups of consumers, such as:
- Group "socket."
- Group "coverage" - separately for the two halves of the apartment.
- Group "kitchen", which will be located outlets for high-power devices.
- Group "powerful consumers" - induction cooker, home air conditioning, etc.
- Group "dangerous powerful consumers" such as a Jacuzzi, bathroom and others.
plan for each individual power cables.It should be indicated on the chart: the type section Material.
Check the last circuit, passing through the rooms, we pretend.If satisfied with the result, then we put the location of objects on the walls and ceiling.If you plan to plaster, then it will have to remove all decoration materials, clean the walls and they draw a marker or pencil line cabling, installation location raspredkorobok, sockets and switches.Now go buy the materials.
buy wire guard, junction box, RCD and automatic
If you are interested in the question, how much is the replacement of wiring, then let us try to discuss it.First of all it depends on yourself you will do it or hire electricians, builders and then to seal the work of electricians.The second point - the way in which the gasket plan on doing.If the cable - channels, a particularly dusty work will not.I have just spent on materials.If you are going to do the wiring hidden in the cutting grooves, it is the most expensive and dirty option.
replacement cost of wiring their own hands depends on the size of the apartment and the amount of materials to be purchased.On average, only wires, sockets, switches and other related materials have to spend about $ 700
wires. For cable to lighting equipment acquire three-core copper wire VVG 1.5 mm2 cross-section.The length is calculated as follows: measure the level of all that we have done on the walls and ceiling, and add 10 - 15 cm at each intermediate junction box and switches.For installation wiring for outlets buy a three-wire cable VVG 2.5 mm2 cross-section.The length of the count as well.For cookers need VVGng 5 * 6 - the extra five-wire 6 mm2 cross-section.
RCD and machines. immediately distinguish between these concepts.
RCD - residual current device, it is necessary to protect against leakage.
Automatic shutdown used for protection against short circuits.
can use differential machines, they perform the functions of both devices at once.
For the group "rosette" takes RCD 30 mA Class A and automatic 16 - 20 A.
For group "coverage" - automatic 10 A. That would be sufficient.
For the group "powerful tools", "food" and "dangerous powerful devices" - machines for 25 A and 30 mA RCD.
junction box buy in the required amount, based on the scheme.
sockets and switches selected depending on whether open or concealed wiring is, as well as aesthetic reasons.They can be embedded or overhead.You can buy switches with illumination for some areas such as the corridor or hallway.However, this is optional.
switchboard can buy metal and plastic, and can be.The size of the flap is adjusted depending on the number of machines and the RCD, which will be connected.There are guards on the machine, and 2 to 16 and more pieces.Take the plate with a margin of 2 machines, just in case, if during the subsequent operation, we need to create a separate line for one more powerful tool.
Siza - insulating connecting elements to connect the wires in the junction box.Buy more abundantly.
need another plug and electrical tape, nails, screws, corrugated, clips for flutes and more.
can proceed to the installation.
Install junction box
Replacing old wiring begins with the installation of a new panel.In new for him a special niche, which are connected to the power cable.In this case, it is only necessary to install it all the machines and the RCD, secure it in a niche and connect to the cable.
If the house is old, the plate should be half done.To do this, select a convenient place to have free access to it.We hang on the plate dowels.Since the flat wire we have not got, that we are drilling a hole in the wall and stretch the cable VVGng 5 * 6, connect it to the shield at the entrance.
shield inside the standard is as follows: at the top - terminal zero at the bottom - the land in the middle - machines.We clean the opening cable that connect the blue wire to zero, yellow - to the ground, and the white - to the upper terminal on the machine, the same set the jumper to the next machine.Wires VVGng 2.5 and 3 * 3 * 1.5 VVGng connect as follows: phase - to the terminal at the bottom of the machine, and ground zero - as well as the introduction of power cable.
If the RCD to be used, the first phase and zero are connected to the RCD, and only then go to the machine and a zero terminal.
Now we can move on to the wiring.
Installation hidden wiring
hidden wiring may be laid in the cutting grooves, cavities ceilings, under the floor, behind drywall or under plaster.
Cabling cutting grooves in plaster and under - the dusty option.Sometimes, in order not to bend around the walls, lead wires on the floor.But in this case it needs to completely dismantle the old floor and put a new one.
to perform cutting grooves in the walls of concrete or brick wall chaser need or in extreme cases a Bulgarian with a diamond disc and hammer with a diamond crown.Work must be in a respirator and goggles, as will a lot of dust.
Important!Note that shtroblenie concrete prefabricated slabs in the model prefabricated homes for wiring is prohibited under the Moscow Government № 508-PP dated 25.10.2011
depth cutting grooves do based on the fact that the top layer of plaster will not exceed 10 mm.The width is not limited.Designated raspredkorobok and sockets cut out with a special crown.
If there is a possibility of laying cable in the cavities overlap, we try and do in order not to violate the integrity of the walls and ceiling.This is especially true of cable coverage, since most of it is in the voids plates, serving the ceiling in your apartment.
When Grooves will be ready, according to a pre-made pattern paving the wire in the required quantity and the required section.For this cut them into pieces of the desired length.Sometimes, for the convenience of their corrugation is pulled through, to make it easy to replace the area without disturbing the finish wall.Sometimes a bunch of wires and pull together with special clamps are attached to the wall fasteners.
in junction box manufacture wiring using the CV, closing their cover.Set sockets and switches.We connect the wires to the terminals.With the tester check the efficiency of the system.If all is well, you can call an electrician to connect electricity from the power board.
then all Grooves should be sealed with plaster.For a one-room apartment for similar work to replace electrical wiring company price starts from 300 USDConventional construction crews can request less - about 120 USD
If laid wire under the plasterboard panels, the technology is different - you need to be sure to hide the wires in the corrugation, attach it to the wall clips.
Wiring in cable ducts
This method is much easier to previous, less dusty, but less aesthetic in the field supply wiring to switches and sockets.The purchase of the material must include the plinth with cable channels and ducts for supply to consumers.Connecting the shield is different.
According to the scheme developed by anchoring the plinth to the floor.From his conduct duct outlets and switches.They laid wires.If you want to install external raspredkorobok, install and connect them inside the wire using the CV.
All sockets and switches are overlaid, fix them to the walls and plants inside the wire connecting.Check tester and invite electrician.That's all.Then close and skirting trunking.No other finishing is not necessary.
basically a way wiring in cable ducts used in places where there is no possibility to perform wiring and hidden in office and commercial buildings.But in fact, it has a distinct advantage.If you need to repair the wiring, or connect more groups that do not need to make repairs and hollow walls.As for the aesthetics: the modern market offers cable channels and boxes of various colors that can not only break the interior, but also to supplement it.
to replace all electrical wiring, including differential machines, RCD, circuit breakers, you can find here in the online store electrical 220pro.ru.
Replacing the wiring with their hands: Video - User