constant increase in energy costs, the need for their economies, the urgency of the preservation of the environment have pushed humanity to the use of LEDs as light sources.Easy to install, easy to use, does not have a negative impact on man and nature as a whole, they are gradually replacing the recently popular compact energy-saving lamps.
- device LED lamp
- Driving LED lamp
- How to build a LED lamp?
- Mounting LED lamp
- Connection LED spotlight
- How to replace the lamp in the luminaire spot?
So, to understand the benefits of LED lamps, it is necessary to find out what they are made and what their principle of operation.
device LED lamp
lamp consists of a set of LEDs that correspond to the total power of the lamp, the control circuit and the housing with a reflector.LED lamps for domestic use, equipped with standard socket E14 or E27 to replace conventional incandescent bulbs.The number of LEDs may be different - from one to
Since their work with LED allocates a significant amount of heat, it must be cooled.Copes with heat radiators, which are attached to the LEDs.It should be noted that at the point of contact between the LED and the heat sink must be used special thermal compound that provides good heat transfer.Otherwise, at constant superheat the LED, its lifetime is significantly reduced.
In the photo are a few types of radiators for LEDs.
Driving LED lamp
Normal control circuit LEDs in the lamp looks like:
installed at the entrance dropping resistor and capacity - they play a role down the power supply.Further, since the LEDs are powered only by the constant current diode bridge is established which converts AC to DC.In the present scheme, all the LEDs are connected in series, but it's not the only way to connect them.These "light bulb" can be connected in parallel to one another or mixed method as shown below.
parallel connection LEDs.Always consistently to each lamp should be connected current limiting resistor to protect the LED from the breakdown.
mixed compounds LEDs.In this case, each group of serially connected lamps connected in parallel with respect to each other.
disadvantage of serial connection is that in the event of failure of one circuit element, the entire assembly will not work, since the circuit formed breakage.If the LED is not just burn, and its breakdown will occur, then the chain is not interrupted, but as the power supply has remained unchanged, while the number of customers decreased, they will begin to work overload and eventually burned.This also applies to schemes for joint compound.The most reliable in this case the parallel connection circuit of the LED lamp, even if fails half light, he will be able to continue to function, albeit not at full strength.But such schemes are the most expensive, so are rarely used.
How to build a LED lamp?
Thanks to modern technology and a variety of light-emitting diodes, which are sold in stores and electrical construction supermarkets to collect light from the LEDs is not easy.First you need to decide what kind of lighting is preferred for the selected room.For example, if a corridor in the hallway, there is no need to install spotlights, and will be more aesthetically pleasing to use LED strips, which is quite possible to mount their own, sticking it on the perimeter of the ceiling.
sale is completely ready for installation on one side of its closed end cap, protects contacts from oxidation, and the other has lead wires, which are connected to the power supply with the correct polarity.Depending on the length of the tape and, accordingly, its power, you need to pick up the power supply (LED-driver), who would be able to feed the entire chain without overloading.In one meter of such a tape can be taken up to 60 LEDs.Typically, the power supply is selected, which has a capacity of 10-15% above the nominal load.These devices is not recommended to close in small niches with limited ventilation, as LED-drivers are at their work to allocate a significant amount of heat.As an option - to use a power supply with forced ventilation.
If the hallway quite go LED ribbon, then the hall or bedroom, it would be too inefficient as the main lighting.Its large rooms used as a backlight, and the main lights on a ceiling or wall for maximum comfort.When planning LED lighting is necessary to consider the area of the room, the ceiling height in her shades and wall surfaces, respectively wattage.When the entire set of equipment will be purchased, proceed to assembly fixtures.
To do this on a radiator coated with thermo fixed LED.If the area of the radiator allows heat from several lamps shall specific nominal number of LEDs on it.How to choose LED lights, articles on the Internet in detail describe the process.The main thing you need to pay attention - this is their power and size.So, one of the most popular are LED SMD.They are marked smd3528 / 1210, smd5050 / 5060 and smd5070 (the most powerful).The numbers in the marking of LEDs means their size.For example, smd5050 has a size of 5x5 mm and smd5070 - 5x7 mm.Due to the small size of these LEDs are used virtually everywhere: in the LED strips and luminaires in the lines and other lighting fixtures.
LED lamps are divided into types:
- underwater performance (for pools and fountains),
- LED controllers (tsvetodinamiki to implement, for example, at discos or live performances).
luminaires can be equipped with motion sensors to significantly increase the service life of the LEDs, which are included only at a time when it is necessary.Such equipment works fine in doorways of homes, long corridors of offices and other places where permanent lighting is not a necessity.
there ready luminaires that are equipped with radiators, designed for light-emitting diodes installed in it.If knowledge is not enough for self-assembly, you can use ready-made solutions and purchase, such as LED downlight for home - assembled LEDs on the radiators.They are enclosed in a housing that can decorate any apartment.
Installing LED lamp
A variety of lamps with LEDs allows their use in virtually any field, including areas with high humidity.But LED lamp at his work generate a significant amount of heat, so should be removed to install them in the kitchen above the cooking stove.From auxiliary heating and poor heat dissipation LEDs will last a long time and will fail quickly.
the proven LED lighting in living rooms and bedrooms.They are great and without any problems mounted on any surface.So, for example, there is the installation of LED lights in the suspended ceiling:
Guided by this simple scheme, in the same way these lamps are installed in the ceilings and plasterboard.
But if the room in which you plan to install LED lighting, ceilings are monolithic concrete slab, then you should choose lighting Surface or suspended type.
In this case, mount the LED lamp or a suspended structure going directly to the concrete surface with special holes in the casing or other devices.
Connection LED spotlight
Warning!All work associated with connecting to mains must be carried out with the power off to avoid electrical shock!
course to connect the spotlights must be routed to the place of installation the live wires.If you plan to install a suspended ceiling, or tension, then the wire extends in a corrugated plastic hose, which, in turn, is fixed to the ceiling brackets.
After laying all the wires and install LED-driver in a convenient place for their maintenance with good ventilation is mounted ceiling.Then carefully cut out holes in it corresponding to the diameter of the light fixtures and carefully output wires that are connected to the terminals of the lamp.After connecting the lamp to install it in the slotted hole, being careful not to break the lamp or damage the film tension ceiling.Moreover, if the tension in the room ceiling, be sure to set the lamp termokoltsa which prevent overheating of the film.But for plasterboard ceilings, this procedure is not required.
connection is made according to the scheme:
If assembly fixtures and wiring is correct, when a voltage is applied to the power supply units have to light the lamp.
How to replace the lamp in the luminaire spot?
Of course, manufacturers of LED lamps declare huge periods of operation of its products, but if used improperly their life of LEDs can be significantly reduced and they need to be replaced.
To replace the lamp spotlights, you must:
- disable the tension in the room or in the apartment;
- carefully remove the retaining ring that holds the safety glass;
- carefully to get the faulty bulb and replace it with a new one;
- replace the glass and secure locking ring.
replace the lamp should be carried out in cotton gloves to avoid damaging the LED and leave on the surface of the fat that is on our fingers.
After performing these operations can be energized and enjoy the results of their work.
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