In Europe, the program of transition to energy saving technologies started in 2009, when in September 2009.It was banned at the legislative level to sell the most popular worldwide bulbs.
Russia also took a course on energy efficiency in 2009.So in November 2009 adopted a law on energy saving, which defines the main stages of a gradual withdrawal from the market of general purpose lamps.So since 01.01.2011.a ban on the sale of incandescent lamps of 100 watts or more, in 2013 - from 75 W to 2014 - from 25 watts and above.
Let's understand why such familiar to us "light bulbs Ilyich" fell out of favor, than they can be replaced and how to move to a more energy-efficient sources.
- Why decommissioned general-purpose lamps?
- What is halogen lamp?Advantages and disadvantages of
- Features of operation of halogen lamps
- Types halogen lamps
- protection unit
- halogen lamps Halogen: Wiring through a transformer
- Album: halogen lamps
- album halogen interior
- How to replace the halogen lamp (video)
Why decommissioned general-purpose lamps?
main reason for the withdrawal lamps general purpose (LON) of turnover - low energy efficiency, which is inherent in the very principle of the lamp.The light source in it is a spiral of tungsten wire (filament), which at current supply is heated and emits light.But actually, the light is converted into only 5% (!) Lamp consumed energy.The remaining 95% - is converted into heat.That is, the lamp is not familiar to us as much light as warm!
second drawback bulbs (incandescent) - over time they begin to shine worse.This stems from the fact that the sides of the flask deposited tungsten, which gradually evaporates from the filament, thereby decreasing luminous flux.The thread without tungsten burns out (accelerate burnout also frequent on / off) - and the lamp is a wreck.
Of course, the cost of the incandescent lamps is much lower compared to other types of modern lamps.But it only seems at first glance.In fact, at a much higher price LON operation, which means that one-time savings when buying overlaps with a vengeance costly electricity.Besides LN has a short life: the best quality ones can last up to 1000 hours, and unscrupulous manufacturers lamp burn after a few inclusions.So buy these bulbs often have.
And another disadvantage of lamps of general purpose is their low luminous efficiency: 7 to 17 lm / W.
What do we offer modern technology to replace incandescent light bulbs?An alternative LON appear several kinds of bulbs: halogen, induction, LED, fluorescent, HID, energy saving.
This article will focus on studying the details of halogen lamps, their types, operating characteristics and methods of commissioning.
What is halogen lamp?Advantages and disadvantages of
Halogen - an advanced filament lamp, which received widespread recently.High-tech manufacturing have improved operational performance halogen lamps all parameters compared to standard lamps.The effectiveness of conventional halogen incandescent lamps is higher by 20 - 50% (respectively, the same value reduced power consumption).
main advantages of halogen lamps - their reasonable price, excellent color reproduction, the ability to create different shades of light and bright light during the whole period of operation.With the addition of the flask vapor halogen (bromine, chlorine, fluorine, iodine), which reduce the evaporation of tungsten is significantly increased lamp life (up to 2000 - 5000 hours).The evaporation of tungsten is slower, including, due to the high gas pressure in the flask, the volume of which was significantly less compared to the LON.Thus, a resource of halogen lamps are 3-5 times higher than normal.Thus it is lower than fluorescent.
Halogen lamps have a rich bright even light, which is significantly different from the spectral composition of light from an ordinary lamp.Such light is as close to the spectrum of sunlight.So it perfectly conveys the color of the human face, as well as in the interior warm colors and neutral palette.
Halogen gases, unlike inert flask protected from the reduction of the luminous flux (halogen gas reacts with tungsten atoms bind them, preventing deposit on the walls of the flask).Brightness is regulated by a large assortment of lighting reflectors of different diameters.Thermal radiation is given outside the illuminated area due to the dichroic reflector.
Halogen lamps like GLS, can be dimmed, iechange the brightness level.The user can without any additional effort to replace incandescent light bulbs with halogen lighting with dimming devices.When this power consumption at the same light output decreases by 30%.But keep in mind that the increase or decrease in the supply voltage is only five to six per cent reduces the service life twice, and provokes settling tungsten bulb.
Besides the above, halogen lamps illuminated protect things from burning through special filters applied to the quartz glass, which do not allow UV light.
Not surprisingly, these lamps have been put into mass production and were so widespread in the household (home, public buildings) and in professional fields.
But halogen lamps has its drawbacks.Because of the high sensitivity to surges, they are much more likely to burn out in the time of inclusion than incandescent general purpose.Therefore, they should be included through relays or transformers, voltage regulators (for low voltage lamps).About the protection unit halogen lamps will be described below.
Another major drawback is the very strong heating of the flasks (above 250 to 500 (!) Degrees Celsius).Therefore, firstly, when they are installed, you need to take care of compliance with fire safety standards (between the floor and ceiling provide sufficient space, exclude the possibility of contact between the lamp with any object or material nearby to prevent it from fire).And secondly, the flask can never take your bare hands.
Features of operation of halogen lamps
Halogen lamps are particularly sensitive to grease.Bulbs should not be touched, even well-washed hands.It will anyway fingerprints, and the glass bulb, at high temperatures, can melted at this point.The increased temperature of the lamp accelerates the evaporation of tungsten, which dramatically shortens the lamp life.Enough to take it up without gloves only once to shorten the life of three times (!).Therefore, always take a lamp with a bulb with a clean cloth or gloves.If the bulb is somewhat soiled - always wipe it with rubbing alcohol.Take your hands can only lamp with double bulb.
If you are using a halogen lamp with dimmer, switch it from time to time at full capacity.It is necessary to vaporize the tungsten iodide precipitate accumulated on the inner side of the flask.
Halogen lamps work equally well on DC and AC.However, they are designed for 220 volt and 12 volt.Consequently, the low voltage lamps should be equipped with an electronic inverter and step-down transformer (it can be built into the luminaire).You can install one down-device group fixtures.In this case, low-voltage cable network is installed a larger cross section compared with a conventional 220-volt wiring designed for the same power consumption.
Types halogen lamps
Before you buy halogen lamps, carefully review of the variety and scope.
linear double-capped lamps with a helical filament and a quartz tube used for illumination of wide surfaces.Have a high light output and color rendering index, lively white luster, constant light output, the ability to adjust the brightness, instant perezazhiganie.Lamps rated at more than 500 watts requires a clear horizontal installation (tolerance - 4 degrees).
lamps with protective glass and colored glass reflector .They are used for decorative lighting.
«galogenki» parabolic glass reflector with an aluminum layer .Designed to create a light accents when accent lighting (including street lighting), lighting design element.
lamps with a double bulb .They are characterized by excellent color rendering (Ra = 100) and stable light output.They have a threaded base and operate from standard AC voltage.Compatible with a dimmer.
When buying also pay special attention to the sockets halogen lamps.The fact that the reduced size of the bulb, as well as making it from heavy glass make it possible to use the lamp without a standard socket.Therefore, it may sometimes be necessary to change the lamp.
protection unit halogen lamps
As we have said, an unpleasant feature of halogen lamps is their high sensitivity to voltage drops and frequent burnout at the time of inclusion.The fact that the sharp inclusion holds great leap voltage and short spirals allocated more power.At this temperature, just a fraction of a second, increased from ambient up to several thousand degrees.At the same time, at the moment when the filament is still relatively cold, and therefore - it has a small resistance.At night, these processes are enhanced because of the increased voltage.It is for this reason that often burn when the lamp is turned on.
lamp life can be extended in two ways: add a diode, thereby reducing the frequency of the current, or when you turn on the lamp gradually increase the voltage.All relays provide a second option.They are also called the soft starter.
Blocks of protection designed for different loads and have various modifications.Some of them work with lamps that are powered by conventional or electronic transformer.Block sizes are dependent on the load power.The smallest unit can be installed directly behind podrozetnik switch.Greater power protection unit can be set, for example, in a false ceiling or in a mounting box by the switch.
Halogen: Wiring through a transformer
To save energy, and improve the safety of operation, often used low-voltage lighting schemes.Since low-voltage halogen lamps are connected through 6, 12 and 24-volt power supply.In this case, an order of magnitude reduction in power consumption, the brightness of the light remains unchanged.
A low voltage is an additional guarantee of security, so the low-voltage halogen lamps are often installed in bathrooms.They are also convenient to use the built-in lamps on the ceiling as modern electronic transformers are small and easily mounted directly on the ceiling frame.
use of low-voltage lamps implies a step-down transformer halogen lamps.The figure below shows the connection of six halogen lights with two step-down transformers.
If you need to connect a large number of lamps, use a special clamp connectors.At the same time, note that halogen lamps are connected in parallel with each other.
when connecting halogen lamps follow these guidelines.
Output Cord Length 12 W should be no more than 2 meters.Otherwise, a loss of current, and consequently - reduction of illumination brightness.
Locate the transformer at least twenty centimeters from any heat source to avoid overheating.Try not to have a transformer in the cavities with a volume of less than 11 liters.If for technical reasons, the transformer is mounted in the recess of small size, the total load on it shall not exceed 75% of the maximum possible value.
Album: halogen lamps
album halogen interior
Video: how to replace the halogen lamp