is hard to imagine without the comfort of a variety of household appliances and a variety of lighting fixtures, but the possibility of their safe use depends on the quality of wiring, grounding and the availability of the apartment.The latter is particularly important, as is a reliable protection against electric shock, saves appliances against voltage surges and voltage spikes.Unfortunately, in the CIS in the homes of old housing apartments grounding is not performed.Only in the new homes since 1998 built, now began to establish an electrical ground.
- Earthing systems
- Installation ground in the house with the system TN-C-S
- Installation ground in the house with the system TN-C
- vanishing in the TN-C
- Valuable grounding system TN-C
And if in new grounding problems largely solved, homes for old housing it remains relevant.Often, the owners of these apartments are beginning to think about grounding when doing major repairs or purchase exp
Create a protective ground in an apartment, you can, in any case, it is important to know where and how to connect the wire.It will have to become familiar with different types of grounding.This is important for several reasons.Firstly, in houses built in different time periods, use different types of grounding systems.And that does not confuse you need a little bit to understand them.Second, the error in the grounding can result in failure of the entire network or even cause a fire.From the correct earthing depends on the safe use of electrical appliances in people's lives.
So, according to GOST, the following types of grounding grid: TN-S , TN-C , TN-C-S , TT , IT .The difference between them is the presence of a separate ground wire.The fact that in some systems, there is the "phase", "zero" and "earth", and in some - only "phase" and "zero."The first two letters indicate the nature of the ground power source and the exposed conductor.Great interest to us is the second part of the marking.It is because it is possible to find out where there is a separate ground wire, and where it is combined with "zero".So the letter «S» says that the system has a separate wire for "zero" and a separate grounding.The letter "C" indicates that the "earth" and "zero" presents a single wire.The letter «N» Neutral marked, which is grounded in systems with alternating current.
grounding scheme in the apartment may contain coded PE and PEN.In fact, this marking indicates the presence of a single or combined ground.PEN - a combined "zero" and the ground (G), and PE - separate conductors for "zero" and the ground (S).
Important!The system provides direct TT frame ground equipment.The system provides IT equipment through the grounding body resistance or complete isolation of current carrying conductors.These systems are commonly used in enterprises.
Knowing marking grounding systems, it can be noted that in homes built before 1998, uses a system of TN-C.In such houses laid two-wire wiring of aluminum or copper.Therefore, in high-rise buildings that time in the riser are fed three-phase (L) and a PEN (C) is a conductor.This ground is also called vanishing.
grounding scheme in the apartment of an old housing stock :
TN-C 1 - grounding of the power supply;2 - exposed conductive parts.
Modern houses are marked system TN-S or TN-C-S.The riser House announced three phase (L), a neutral conductor (N) and one protected by PE (S) wire and three-wire laid on the premises wiring.Connection to such a system is much easier compared to the TN-C system, since each conductor has separate connection points, and the ground has a separate connection to the metal body panel.
grounding scheme in the apartment of a new housing fund :
TN-S 1 - grounding of the power supply;2 - exposed conductive parts.
TN-C-S 1 - grounding of the power supply;2 - exposed conductive parts.
It should be noted that the contour of the ground settling in an apartment building at the stage of its construction, so the ground carry out the calculation does not make sense.Creating a circuit diagram and all calculations are carried out at the stage of designing the house.And in case you need to make the new calculations, it is best to contact the experts, or use a special program.
Installation ground in the house with the system TN-C-S
determine which grounding system in the house, in several ways.The first - is to contact the housing for the electricians to the question of grounding.Second - just look into the junction box on the floor and carefully consider the power supply cable.For the system earthing TN-C-S five-wire characterized by the use of cable: three phase (L), zero (N), and earth (PE).To facilitate the identification of all the wires are color.So "phase» (L) brown or red, "zero» (N) blue or blue earth (PE) - yellow wire with green stripe, or just green.
As previously mentioned, do grounding in new homes with a system of TN-C-S is quite simple.The fact is that indoor initially laid a three-conductor wiring, and it has a separate grounding cable.But if, after acquiring an apartment builders found no wiring divorced, then there is also no big deal, you can do everything yourself.Bring all the wires to the shield in the apartment will not be difficult.
Wiring is carried out as follows.If you have not installed a distribution panel in an apartment will have to do its assembly and installation RCD inside flap.Usually plate placed near the front door and easily accessible.Next to the shield are drilling a through hole, and passed through a cable to connect to the shield on the landing.Wires connect the incoming cable to the shield in the apartment as follows:
- yellow-green (ground) is connected to the ground bus.The bus itself is in the lower right corner of the panel;
- blue or blue wire (zero) is connected to the zero bus.It is located in the upper left corner of the panel;
- feeds the wire (phase) connected to multiple RCD series.
- Now connect the wiring from the apartment to the shield.Connect the wires in the same way as described above, with the only difference that to the individual RCD connect a separate group of electrical appliances.
now call the electricians so that they turn off the power on the riser.Once this is done, will produce electrical connection to the main distribution box and again include electricity.Upon completion of all work can be carried out on the subject of network testing ground.Checking the grounding wire in the presence of a conventional voltmeter, other methods are not safe.On the voltmeter exhibit maximum voltage of 250 V and are putting a probe to the ground, the second to the "phase".The arrow should deviate by 230 - 240, it's okay.
Important!Connecting to the main visor own it is prohibited.Firstly, you can not turn off the self-riser, and even if you can, you do not have permission to do so.Second, the connection to the general power grid should make a person with appropriate authority, knowledge and skills.Third, without permission of the trip you may be fined or apply stricter sanctions.In addition, any mistake can cause fire or damage to the power grid.
Installation ground in the house with the system TN-C
previously noted that the houses of the old housing stock is characterized by earthing system TN-C.It can be checked in the same way as described above.The only difference is that looking into the junction box, you can see the absence of yellow-green wire to the power cable.There may be three-phase and zero.Grounding in these homes, in fact, is missing, and make it to individual apartment a little more complicated, but not impossible.It will have to perform major repairs with full replacement of the entire wiring.This is important, because the old wiring is a two-core aluminum wire, and the need to create the ground is a third lived.
Important!When the complete replacement of wiring and laying a new plan must be laid wiring diagram with all distribution boxes and connection points.All work is carried out in strict compliance with safety rules, requirements for wiring, installation of connections and lighting.When selecting electrical wires and should be familiar with the requirements that apply to them for a residential installation.From compliance with all the rules during the installation will depend on your safety when using electricity.
After laying new wiring junction box and install automatic RCD same as described above for the grounding system TN-C-S.Call the electricians, and they make the connection.But the very connection to the main distribution box will be somewhat different.All the matter in the absence of grounding wire.And at this point, you can go two ways: perform or complete vanishing of ground.
vanishing in the TN-C
This path is somewhat simpler, but less secure.The fact that the recommendations of GOST for TN-C systems are somewhat outdated, not to mention the power cable is partially worn, worn-out electrical and deplorable state boards.As noted earlier, for such systems is done by combining ground zero conductor to the grounding electrodes.That in combination with worn-out equipment may result in fire.But there was nothing to be done, for guests all as it should be.
Valuable grounding system TN-C
The second path involves the creation of a full-fledged ground loop.It is more complicated, but also more reliable.We'll have to create your own ground loop.To do this, agreeing with the electricians can be buried in the basement of the electrodes and lend them a separate wire through the riser and have him make ground in the apartment.Some homeowners on the lower floors ground loop digged directly next to the house.But it is worth noting that the establishment of a full grounding in older homes rather unprofitable business that requires calculations for the most ground loop.
Important!Some owners have grounded their wiring by attaching wires to a radiator or riser cold water, as well as to a gas pipe.This is a very wrong decision.Firstly, this reduces the reliability of the ground tubes.Secondly, no one like that on a warm touch to it sharahnet battery current.Third, the current, leaving through such a ground may be large enough to go down a child who accidentally touched the tube.
Create grounding in the apartment - a very responsible occupation.On how safe and it is done will depend on the safe use of electrical appliances.But compliance with the rules and requirements for wiring will forget about the problems with the mains for many years.