Often masters who love to work with wood, or owners of cottages, are faced with the necessity of planing a plurality of boards to give them the visual appeal.It is necessary to align the thickness of the material, the size of display boards and panels, a smooth surface of the workpiece, from which subsequently have to make furniture, or use them for finishing the floor or room.The solution is to buy or manufacture planer planers with their hands, because the machine with automatic feeding of blanks and knife shafts HSS significantly accelerates and facilitates the process of planing wood.
- Purpose planers
- design planers
- The principle of planers
- Production planers
- Adjustment planers
planers Planers are designed for planing planar blanks- boards, sticks and planks thickness in a predetermined size, and therefore are mainly in the wood-processing enterprises.In addition, the gauge there almost every carpenter.The
planer for use in the construction of a single pass capable of processing a large number of wide boards.Unlike industrial apparatuses, household thicknesser are small in size and much lighter, which facilitates their transportation.Moreover, modern models are lightweight system shift workers knives and increased control of the depth of cut to exactly vyverivat thickness removable chip.
As a rule, the procedure before the wooden surface was pretreated for Planer.For non-standard types of materials (polymers, soft plastics, insulation foam based on) meant planers with rubberized metal feed rolls that are not able to spoil the surface of the workpiece.
sectional feed rollers, which are equipped with woodworking equipment allows entering the machine at the same time serve different thickness of the workpiece.Thickness Planer is one of the most important installations in carpentry and construction, as well as in the furniture industry, enabling to make accurate trims headset or slats of wood paneling for kitchens.
on homemade planers can not shave very thin workpieces because vibrations occur that affect the quality of the treated surface.Minimum length of the workpiece must be 100 mm longer than the distance from the front to the rear feed roll.If it is necessary to mill the material is shorter, it must be securely attached to the base.With the help of appropriate tools for planers will handle even the wedge-shaped workpiece and align non-parallel plane.
depth of cut cut the gauge shows a single pass: the figure ranges from 1 - 3 mm, depending on the width of the material.The width of the workpiece describes processing capabilities of products that have a certain size: the optimal solution - 30 - 330 millimeters.The performance of the work affects the power of the machine.For private workshops suitable thickness planer 1.9 kW.Devices, power is above 1.8 kW is suitable for planing of solid wood - spruce, beech, pear, elm, ash.
planers called a special device that belongs to the category of woodworking machines, which successfully cope with the flatness, volume and profile milling straight- and curved pieces made of solid wood.
By their construction:
- sided planers on which planing is done only on the upper side;
- Bilateral planers where planed simultaneously two opposing sides - upper and lower;
- Special planer - three-, four- and multi-knife.
most widely-sided planers, which are simpler in design and operation, respectively.Their device today and we will consider.
table planers unlike Planer lies one solid plate that precisely planed and sanded, and he does not have in its construction of the fence.In addition to the horizontal table on which is governed by the thickness of the release layer, marking gauge consists of such basic elements as a special cutter, which is represented by several individual knives and automatic feeding system of the wood on the roller guides.
Stand for planers cast iron, hollow, unit-cast on it is attached all the details and mechanisms of the machine.The reference table can serve as a metal area measuring 100 by 100 millimeters and a length of not less than 1000 millimeters.This length is due to security measures.Reference table hang on the corners of the machine technology, is attached to one side of bolts, on the other - clamps.At the height of the table can be moved along the guide sled hoist.
Above the table is placed the blade shaft.Mechanism workpiece is represented by two pairs of rollers.The first of them is located in front of the cutter shaft, the other - for the shaft.The lower rollers mounted just below the top.The upper rollers rotate by an electric motor through a gear train, so they called the drive, feed or feed.The lower rollers are set freely and are driven by the feed.These rollers - supports or guides.The bilateral planers knife shafts are located in the table and above the desk.
Appointment of lower rollers is to facilitate the flow of material on the blades, they stand above the desktop to 0.2-0.3 mm.Planed material at a higher location of the lower roller is vibrating from the blows of knives, fine will sag and planing get rough.Front upper roller decided to make corrugated for better adhesion to the planed surface of the workpiece.Such a roller is mounted on 2-3 mm below the surface of the material that is supplied to the knives.
upper rear roller is necessary to make a smooth, because the grooves of the port planed wood surface.Place it below 1 millimeter cutting edges of knives.Feeder rollers are arranged in parallel, so the thickness planer at the same time can be served only part of the same thickness.Articles of lesser thickness, even for 2-3 millimeter, reaching the blade shaft, will receive a strong blow in the face with a knife and fly back.
for simultaneous planing lumber that have different thickness planers in the scheme introduced grooved drum sectional that allows you to use the entire width of the machine, and dramatically increase productivity.Sectional roller consists of corrugated rings 12 which are planted on a common axis and connected thereto by springs.When passing under the roller articles whose thickness greater than a thickness of others that are simultaneously processed, sections that are pressed against it, shifted upwards and retain adhesion to the material under the action of springs.
Before such grooved roller positioned suspension whose purpose lies in the fact to prevent the return flight details of the machine.Top knife shaft hoisting massive hood is closed, which is a reliable fencing and is a quality device that directs chips exhauster into the funnel.In addition, the cap makes backwater fibers planing, its lower edge for this is brought to the most knives.
Replacement blades can increase from two to four.As an instrument other than the cutter can be used smooth drum that will fit sanded.Machined reel is obtained from heat-resistant plastic, aluminum or solid wood.Suitable dimensions: diameter 80 mm, length 100 mm.At one end of the groove makes a nut and washer.On the side surface for attaching the skin is cut by a longitudinal groove that has a trapezoidal shape, a clamp similar shape.Drilled three holes in the bar for flat-head screws.
wire feed rollers top - smooth rear and front embossed.Two smooth rolls which rotate freely in bearings, capable of reducing friction during movement of the material on the table.Typical maximum width of workpiece 315 - 1250 mm, thickness - 5 - 160 mm, the diameter of the blade shaft 100 - 165 millimeters, is available on the shaft 2 - 4 the blade.Power electric motor reaches 1 - 44 kW.
The faster the blades rotating shafts, the cleaner and smoother surface is obtained blanks after planing.You can choose to use cell phones to speed 6 - 10 thousand rpm.Weight device planers and compact planer directly characterize the ability to move equipment.The compact machines that have a weight 27 - 39 kg, is the most good choice.
At a certain distance from the desktop cutterblock planed workpiece in size, which is shown on a scale fixed on the machine frame.Clamps installed on both sides of the blade shaft, they are able to prevent vibration pieces.Chipbreaker that is located in front of the cutter shaft, promotes nadlamyvaniyu chips and presses the workpiece to the table, forming a cavity for accumulating chips with a clip.
The principle of planers
The principle of operation of the gauge procedure laid flat planing boards.The main working tool in planers is the blade shaft.Preparations for the treatment served on a horizontal desktop manually or rollers that press them to the table and pulled into the processing area.Material planed top knives, and as a result obtained the details, exactly the same size.Many planers have an automatic feeding system preforms at a certain speed to gently and precisely remove the desired layer.
can purchase a one-sided or double-sided marking gauge.At first planers present one knife shaft, in bilateral and there is an additional cutter spindle on the desktop.Before processing parts surface gauge they should already be in podstrugannymi Planer.By design, in principle, two machines are very similar to each other.Often bilateral and marking gauge jointer combined in one mechanism.Such equipment has two tables - for jointer and planer top from the bottom.
Usually planers planed workpiece length slightly greater than the distance that formed between the feed rollers, as a video of planers.In the case of four plain patterns (tsulagi) can be whittled to planers workpiece (shields, sticks, boards) with non-parallel opposite faces.The surface of the template should be tilted in such a way that, when the horizontal planing procedure could obtain the desired taper.
Some models planers for the convenience of producers to increase the length of the table.Therefore, beams or have a substantial bearing area, and products processed more accurately.To blank the table is optimally gliding, they make special grooves which reduce friction.Similar models previously used primarily in the production, but today these principles are widely adopted in domestic thicknessing machines.
One of the main advantages of planers serves high quality machined surfaces.The thickness of the receiving item specified with the lifting mechanism, when the table is moved relative to the knife shaft upwards.But it is necessary to take into account the fact that the high speed cutting of blanks and great depth of cut surface quality deteriorates.Therefore, to achieve a smooth surface finishing is necessary to make the passages with a small depth and small speed cutterblock if the machine is adjustable.
Thickness Planer is one of the most high-performance wood-working machines.It should be a time to configure the size of the workpiece with a ruler and a lift, and the entire batch of products will be the same, within the allowable index.On planers you can handle parts with a width up to 1250 mm and a thickness of 5 - 160 mm, except for special machines designed for specific jobs.
All owners who are faced with the manufacture of construction woodwork, paneling and furniture made of wood, came to the conclusion about the need to have in your use of even the most primitive marking gauge.Without such an installation is extremely difficult to obtain the preform thickness calibrated preform further procedure takes a lot of time.Not everyone can afford to buy the equipment manufacturing industry, prices planers "bite", so the craftsmen come to a decision with his hands to make the installation.
Before you start manufacturing planers, is to study the process of using and storing the gauge.Tiny machines do not require much space.The design should be placed in such a way that it turned out to walk around for easy product feed.A similar technique, you can set the front of the garage or the house: the main thing that under the surface of the machine is flat to avoid the occurrence of vibration.Dimensions of the gauge is often not more than a meter in width and thickness, so the equipment can easily fit in a shed or garage.For home
establishment offers the following construction.The frame and the desktop machine are welded, made from the corner of 50 to 50 millimeters and square tube 40 to 40 millimeters, you can use the material of large dimensions.Remember that excessive massiveness only increases the stability of planers and reduces vibrations that occur during operation.For the production of the machine is necessary: turning and drilling machines, Bulgarian, welding machine and a drill.
following elements design serves the blade shaft.It is desirable to get ready with the Bucs, because the homemade rolls are not always perfectly well-balanced.In an embodiment that is given us unused trehsotmillimetrovy shaft with three knives.A motor pulley and the shaft must take step for selecting optimal rotational speed within the boundaries of 4000-7000 rpm.
for this size tree is well suited asynchronous motor that has a power of 4.5 kW, there is no need to use pulleys larger than the engine of this power is quite run from one phase by known methods.Pressure rollers is recommended to carve or use ready-made from pomace old Soviet washing machines.Frame rollers - welded, attach it from one side to the spring-loaded bolt, on the other - used for fixing a piece of tie rod on the "Moskvich".Experience shows that a good idea to use two such fastening on one roller.
table according to the drawing the thickness table mounted on the adjusting bolts.Bolts needs to avoid adjusting each equipped with welded bicycle sprockets that are connected to a chain.Take the valve springs with the engine of the truck.Unfortunately, in this planers provided manual feed.In the future, if you want you can use mechanical.
Prior check the correct position of the blades, and the sharpness of their sharpening.Remember that the fence should be the blade shaft.Not allowed length of the workpiece is less than the distance between the front and rear rollers.It does not clean, repair and build thickness planer on the go.