In today's world there is often the need to make a copy of something, or play and repetition of something.For this purpose, many enterprises are widely used copy-milling machines, which are designed to create products whose shape is most relevant given the original sample.They allow you to produce parts in large editions, while providing high-speed processing and manufacturing of each element.
- Features procedures milling
- Purpose key-cutting machine
- design key-cutting machine
- Types of key-cutting machines
- The principle of key-cutting machine
- key-cutting machine with his hands
Features procedures milling
Milling - this is one of the most common methods of machining.With the milling is carried out roughing, finishing and semi-finishing and contoured surface of simple pieces of steel, non-ferrous metals, iron and plastic.Milling is characterized by a high level of performance that allows the end result is to obtain products
Milling can be carried out in two ways: milling procedure counter (counter flow) when flow is opposite to the direction of rotation of the cutter and milling Climb (serving) as the same as the direction of rotation and feed mills.Using cutters, which are equipped with modern cutting materials (minerallkeramikoy, synthetic superhard), you can handle materials that are hardened to a high hardness, thereby replacing the grinding process.
milling machines are designed for milling surfaces leverage straps, cases, covers and brackets simple configuration of complex configuration circuits (such as templates, cams) surfaces of body parts.Milling machines are divided into two main categories: general purpose machines and apparatus specialized.The first group includes Milling, console, Beskonsolnaya and continuous milling.The second category includes machines rezbofrezernye, hobbing, shlitsefrezerny, keyway milling and copy-milling.
Purpose key-cutting machine
key-cutting machine made use to perform copying work in volume and plane, as well as the volume using volume models and corresponding copier, for engraving of different structural shapes, patterns, patterns and inscriptions, andalso for light milling work.The undisputed advantage of these units is that he is able to perform at their own simple device is incredibly complex patterns.
The machine can perform a variety of milling operations on steel, cast iron and nonferrous metals using high-speed and carbide tools in a large-scale and small-scale production.On such machines manufactured crest screws vessels, blades of turbojet engines and steam turbines, hydraulic turbines impellers, cutting and forging dies, molds and pressing, different cams, dies, molds, metal models and the workpiece.
Such equipment is also used for drilling holes for handles, locks, latches, metal hinges, as well as the implementation of the framework for mirrors and channels of all sizes in the plastic and aluminum profiles as a video about key-cutting machine.On the universal machine tools processing procedure similar products it is virtually impossible.
key-cutting machine is designed for milling curved parts method of copying the template from which you copied the shape of the future product.The use of templates allows to exclude at this complex operation the human factor, and all finished parts as a consequence have the same shape.
to manufacture several completely identical products can not only use a single template, and all subsequent parts manufactured on the model of the first.However, for the most exact repetition is recommended to complement the copier machine, called a pantograph.Its design is different, but one feature in all cases - or rather pass along the profile of the head movement of the copying cutting device.
design key-cutting machine
key-cutting machine for processing profiles (planar milling) or reliefs (milling volumetric) products using cutting carbide tools - cutters.The cutter plays on the product outline or the surface of the master device - copier.Ask the manual key-cutting machine has a pneumatic, mechanical or hydraulic connection with the tracking system, which is responsible for the direction of the cutting tool on the one hand acting on the amplifying device, and the other in influencing the executive body.
as a copier may be a flat pattern, spatial model, the reference part, outline drawing and copier is a probe, copying video or finger photocell.Samples for copy can be made of metal, plastic or wood.The workpiece and the fixed cam on a rotating table.
Executive Body may act valve, screw, solenoid, magnetic clutch, differential.The amplifying device key-cutting machines use electromagnetic, hydraulic or electro-optical switch.The roughness of the surface of the workpiece and the profile accuracy are dependent on the speed of movement of the tracker: №6 achieved roughness and profile accuracy of 0.02 mm.The drive circuit is made by the executive power and the motor cylinder.
Copy the established scale is performed using a special device called a pantograph.If you are interested, both in the home to make key-cutting machine, you can supplement it by this device.The pantograph is structurally guide pin, which is located on the axis and moves along the cam rotation axis and the tool spindle.When you move your finger on the copier on the workpiece spindle describes a geometrically similar shape.A copy ratio is determined by the proportions of the pantograph arms.
Forms key-cutting machines
By type of drive distinguish such basic types of key-cutting machines: pantograph, which is designed to work in 2 and 3 dimensions;Universal apparatus pantograph, which is disposed on the swivel arm in a vertical plane;single- and multi-spindle units with rectangular and round tables;motorized, electric and hydroficated and photocopiers.
There are several types of such milling and copying machines, which differ in the level of automation and pressing the workpiece:
- Handheld or table key-cutting machine with a mechanical clamp profile.With its help, you can make the procedure rassverlovki holes of different shapes on a template, but the need for triple holes trehshpindilnaya nozzle on the machine or drill.
- Auto (fixed) milling and profiling machine with a pneumatic clamp profile.These machines also allow you to do the triple holes for the handles and are generally used for the production of aluminum structures.
- Auto (fixed) milling and profiling machine with a pneumatic clamp profile and 3-spindle attachment for rassverlovki triple holes.
The principle of key-cutting machine
treatment of products in the key-cutting machine is performed by a given device (copier), whose action is through a copier, a corresponding movement of the workpiece relative to a special cutting tool.In a copier copier affects the executive bodies, with harvesting and milling recreate the relative motion of the surface, which is set on the copier.
main motion is the rotation of the spindle, the movement of the table and slide on a path, the movement of the spindle head during insertion.Auxiliary movement - acceleration sled movement, the spindle head and the table, setting the table move treysernogo table, thrusts, copying finger and clamp the spindle head.
key-cutting machine for aluminum able to work on two tracking schemes: action feedback and simple operation.Copy the probe and cutter in the scheme of simple steps are rigidly connected to each other, and the movement is transferred to the cutter stylus copied.Deviation copier probe in a feedback circuit causes a mismatch in the position of the probe relative to the copy milling.
result of this mismatch comes in a special tracking system, which the actuator outputs a signal for adjustment of the tool path.Rigid connection mills and the copier is not in this case, and copier cutting force does not perceive, but only transmits the signal to the respective executive bodies.
There are two types of copy routing - the volume and contour.Curve tracer with the contour copy can be placed in a plane that is parallel or perpendicular to the axis of the cutter.The table in the first case, the copier and the workpiece is moved in the longitudinal direction, change control curve is accomplished due to the vertical movement of the incisions and the follower finger.The table to the copier and the workpiece in the second case is moved in the transverse and longitudinal direction respectively form a curve tracer.
complex three-dimensional surface of the workpiece at a volume copying mill processed sequentially by several parallel moves the table, ie the contour copying is performed for each working stroke.At the end of the passage of the cutter moves relative to the workpiece is perpendicular to the line on the value of cross-feed, then comes the next stroke.
There are also key-cutting machine of direct action, in which the probe cutter transmits the motion through a pantograph.These machines are mainly used for light engraving and milling operations.When using the pantograph can be carried out, except for copying, zoom out pieces in relation to the copier.Moving the copier stylus cam which is mounted on the machine table, the spindle is passed that describes the processing of the workpiece contour, are geometrically similar to the copier.
key-cutting machine with his hands
Currently on the market are lathe-duplicating machines very different structures and levels of complexity.However, such a purchase is not always possible, and the price of key-cutting machine is large enough.So often we face the question of how to make a key-cutting machine at home.
course, home-made machines can not completely with the industrial model to compete, but still they are operable and allow to make high-quality copies.I would like to make a reservation that the copier adapt to the industrial milling device will be very difficult, and this is true, above all, a fundamental alteration of the entire apparatus.Therefore, homemade key-cutting machine to collect the easiest virtually "from scratch" using linkage and an electric motor with a chuck for milling.
Constructions key-cutting machines can be a lot.Typical design of the device is as follows: Machine structurally consists of a desktop, the base frame and the milling head.The work surface can be adjusted for height, the milling head is equipped with an electric motor drive and the two-stage gear mechanism, which provides two-speed milling shaft.
Many home owners complain that when copying items to get the item has a lot of flaws and inconsistencies that appeared when the direction of the cutter, vibration and shake of the support structure.Troubles added deflection and curvature of the workpiece to be associated with an increase in the internal stress due to the sample timber.Avoid all the shortcomings in the production of home-made key-cutting machine is impossible.Just copy machine recommended uzkoprofilnye, not universal.
homemade key-cutting machine has to be optimized for the production of concrete products that are necessary for you.For example, for the efficient manufacture of the wooden rifles and screw propeller require different solutions, they can not be a single machine to combine and may cause adverse, trudnoispravlyaemye effects.Thus, the practical tools to collect under some specific tasks.Such an approach can you avoid many of the costs and difficulties.
important factor - is the size of the machine.What do you plan to handle the product, the design should be massive.It is necessary that the vibration that is transmitted from the drive cutter absorbed weight of the support structure of the machine.Loads must be maintained guide shafts, which should also have a reserve of strength and does not sag.Optimal parameters in designing key-cutting machine with their own hands are selected empirically, it provides a smooth ride cutters.
When designing key-cutting machine to determine the type of details that will make.To perform the engraving work and for milling long products require different desktop and method of securing it with blanks template.Freedom of movement in different planes of the cutting tool is dependent on the type of working table.
from manufactured parts and material depends on the power of the motor that rotates the cutter and is mounted on a homemade key-cutting machine.For engraving and milling of wood products rather 150-200 watt electric motor DC.
procedures to ensure accurate copy need to connect with one another firmly copying the probe and the device, securing it in the cutting tool.At the same time their height and the plane of the desktop must match completely.Created a rigid structure should be set on a desk in such a way that it can be moved in the vertical and horizontal axes along which are conventionally parties desktop.