Through street lighting creates an artificial gain visibility at night.Most often this is done using a variety of light sources, mounted on poles, buildings and other supports.Their light can be both directional and diffused.Street lights are not just for night illumination, but also to create a unique atmosphere.This article will talk about the variety of street lighting.
- Landscape Lighting outdoor lighting and views
- discharge lamps for street lighting
- Mercury lamps Metal halide lamps Sodium lamps
- fluorescent lamps Induction lamps
- Lighting Solar
- specifications and requirements for street lamps
- Varieties of street lamps
- Machines and photoelectric for street lighting
Street lighting is divided into several types according to the typelight sources, types of supports and a method for controlling power sources.The system of lighting can be arranged so that the control is auto
- Facade lighting is lights and spotlights, which are fixed on the buildings so as to cover small areas of the territory of the dot, such as the main entrance, the building or the inner courtyard.
- The greatest diversity and types of lighting can be called landscape lighting.It not only stands for garden paths, but also emphasizes the benefit shrubs, trees and sculptures.
- Street lighting is represented mainly installed at high altitude lights.Their peculiarity is to provide a flow of the scattered light.
features landscape lighting
- Landscape lighting elements are designed for lighting of private houses and gardens, and also serves as a decorative element.
- They are often installed on low-poster and meant to illuminate the area, paths, local area, swimming pools, ponds and gardens.
- This lighting creates a unique atmosphere and comfort and allows us to emphasize the unusual architectural and landscape solutions.
- If svetilnye devices are chosen correctly, then the lighting is not only decorate the space, but also allow a person to feel safe and confident to travel throughout the night.
- peculiarity of landscape lighting is a high degree of protection and resistance to moisture.Due to the fact that the park and the street lamps have to work in an open space and in any weather conditions, the construction of designed so that it includes all the methods of protection from external adverse effects.
- They are widely represented a variety of models, including lights for parks and gardens, hangers for facades, sconces and lamps of different shapes and sizes.
- Varieties landscape lighting serve as security, functional, architectural and decorative lighting and illumination can be distinguished separately.
Street lighting and views
to create street lighting, various modern and traditional materials such as steel, glass, plastic and metal products.Stylistic decision also diverse and can be done in the style of classic, modern, high-tech and Baroque.By types of light sources can be divided into the following types.
- based on heating the filament to a high temperature in an inert gas.Characterized by a large enough power and heat dissipation, but costly energy consumption.
- Halogen - a type of incandescent light bulbs, which adds a buffer gas (vapor halogen), which allows the lamp to work longer.The service life due to such additives increases by 2-4 times (thousands of hours 2-4).They are used in the inner and in street lighting in spotlights and flashlights.
discharge lamps for street lighting
light source in their favor burning gaseous fuels, which cause electric shock.This may be hydrogen, methane, propane, natural gas, ethylene or other gas.
- discharge lamps have a fairly high efficiency (light output reaches 85-150 lm / W), so they are often used for street lighting.
- Lifetime reaches 3,000-20,000 hours, allowing less light sources to carry out the replacement.
- Due to the quality of their light transmission is often used for decorative street lighting.
The disadvantages of gas discharge lamps can be attributed to non-critical sphere of street moments.
- These lamps are reasonably noisy work the commissioning and installation of flickering glow.
- Also they are harmful for the interior lighting and in that when damaged bulb, mercury vapor poisons the human body.But for outdoor lighting, these factors are not significant, and the housing and bulb outdoor HID lamps are made of a durable material and vandaloustochivye.
discharge lamps are of three types: sodium, mercury and methane halogen.
- Powered by formation of a gas discharge in mercury vapor.For street use suitable lamps for general purposes, as in medicine, industry and agriculture used mercury lamps for special purposes.
- control parameters of the mercury lamp street lighting is through the starting unit.At the end of a given period of electrical and photometric characteristics of the light source to stabilize.Time during which the stabilization occurs due to the external environment: the colder the environment, the longer it is heated.
- In the course of such a lamp is heating up rapidly, which requires the use of heat-resistant wires in the lighting system.
- The disadvantages of high-power mercury lamps include an increase in pressure during operation.This means that to run the installation, it takes time for the lamp to cool.And as it begins work at night, during the day it is time to cool off and again to work properly.
- also mercury lamps for street lighting are affected by power failures, which affect the luminous flux emitted by them.If the voltage is reduced greatly, the mercury lamp does not light up, and the one that lights may go out.
- gas discharge, through which operates the lamp creates ultraviolet radiation, serves as a source of bright white light.This occurs due to the fact that the inside wall of the mercury lamps have a coating of phosphor, which is formed by ultraviolet.
- Through economical use of mercury lamps of their profitable use for lighting large areas.
Metal halogen lamps
- This kind of discharge lamps have a special supplement of the metal halide to mercury vapor, it allows you to adjust the spectral characteristics of the instrument.
- Due to the high light transmission and power metal halide lamps are used to illuminate a large area of open spaces, architectural lighting, sports lighting and stage lighting.
- These lamps are single-ended, the capacity of which ranges from 125 to 2000 W, and the soffit with a capacity of 70-150 watts.
- light of these lamps is closer to daylight and has no admixture of blue.Over time, they are able to change the color performance after some time.Metal halide lamps have come to occupy a place of mercury counterparts, due to their color temperature.
- Their work is that in sodium vapor formed by gas discharge.Such sources are used only for outdoor lighting.A distinctive feature of sodium lamps - low spectral characteristics.
- spectrum light yellow-orange bright soft light that is usually found on the streets.
- Efficiency sodium lamps is very high, but its disadvantage is the dependence on the external temperature conditions.In order to create the necessary temperature for the street lamps on the basis of sodium use special bulb which is made from borosilicate glass.
- with built-in arc lamps, light source in which the electric arc is burning between the two electrodes.Typically, the electrodes are made of tungsten.Inside is an inert gas, vapor or metal salts of mercury and sodium.Based on the contents of the internal pressure and temperature of the light bulb has a different light spectrum.It enriched gas inside the bulb and passes ions in plasma that has a high conductivity current.
- Compared with incandescent fluorescent lamps have a very large light output and they are 10 times longer.
- Previously applied electromagnetic launchers and control devices.They were replaced by electronic ballasts that call.They are allowed to work without flickering lamps and noise, and increase the efficiency and reduce the size.
- reduces the life of a lamp on and off frequently, so the use of fluorescent lamps is a great option for street lighting.
- at both ends of the lamp the electrodes between which there are mercury vapor, and passing current produces UV radiation.It's imperceptible to the human eye and by luminescence is converted into visible light.The phosphor covers the inner wall surface of the lamp and absorbs the UV radiation, forms a glow.Due to the composition of the phosphor and changing of the lamp shade.23Vt a lamp lighting creates equal to 100W incandescent bulbs.
- in street lighting and lighting installations of high power used fluorescent lamps, high-pressure and low-pressure lamps are suitable for private gardens.This is the most reliable to date types of lamps.
- electrodeless discharge lamps.The light source is a plasma therein, which is formed during the ionization of the gas by the magnetic field of high frequency.To form a magnetic field, gas lamps placed close to the inductance.Direct contact of the electrodes with no gas plasma, which increases the lamp operating time and stability of parameters increases.This is because the inner part have parts made of metal, which are destroyed by strokes of ions and electrons that allows to keep the composition of the gas medium.
- Lighting with solar panels - a separate class for street lighting, which is characterized by high efficiency.It is advantageous to use for both houses adjoining lighting and street lighting for large-scale landscapes and architectural compositions.They serve as an alternative to all types of electric lamps.
- solar-powered lighting is characterized by high mobility and autonomy, because it does not require connection to the mains.They are switched on and off independently, so the human factor in their work offline.
- brightness of the emitted light increases with the onset of darkness, and during daylight solar lamps turn off automatically.The use of such lighting saves on electricity consumption and the external equipment they can have a more elaborate design and a lot of decorative elements.
- source of light in them is solar energy, which is accumulated during daylight hours.With the use of solar panels are made as the lights and pendant lighting models, LED lights and other decorations.They often choose to cover the urban landscape in parks and gardens, flowerbeds and alleys, paths and driveways.
specifications and requirements for street lamps
All lights have a number of characteristics, the most important of which is the power and luminous flux.Power is measured in watts and light output in lumens.The efficiency ratio of the lamp lumens is tested to Watt.The higher it is, the stronger and more efficient lights.At LED street lighting ratio is 100Lyumenov / 1 Watt.
Street lighting is regulated by the SNP, which allowed the widespread use of LED technology.
- Sidewalks and parks are usually covered by scattered light.For this purpose, a special design ceiling that diffuses rays.To increase the dispersion of rays on the cylindrical ceiling set transparent rings embossed shape.The power of these lamps is equal to 40-125 watts, depending on the distance from each other.
- information objects (House) is illuminated by lamps and spotlights.
- There architectural lighting, which has a decorative function.Facades of buildings, sculptures, pavilions and covers various types of lamps and spotlights.
Because of the specificity of the working conditions for street lighting makes special set of requirements specifications, design and safety standards.
- For example, the street lamps are not too important color or color.
- important parameters for them are: luminous efficiency, serviceability, power lamp lifetime.Luminous flux ratio called the account to its capacity or another - efficiency.
to choose the right option for street lighting, in addition to the above parameters, it is necessary to take into account five main criteria:
- climate illuminated area;
- flow rate within a radius of coverage;
- account the negative impact of the environment on lighting;
- particular installation;
- requirements for light brightness or light areas of land.
the climatic features of the area depends on the level of protection, which shows the possibility of falling into the lighting of moisture, dust or other foreign matter.Protection classification indicated in the passport of the device.Its value has two components of the parameter values:
- from 1 to 6 degree of protection against penetration into the housing of solid foreign particles or dust.
- 1 to 8, the degree of penetration of moisture into the housing of the lighting device.
Varieties of street lamps
assortment of street lighting includes lights of different types (with lamps with shades, string) lights and spotlights.
- Lanterns street lights are usually mounted on the supporting columns, walls of buildings, as well as attach to the metal "string."
- Fixtures curvature based on the distribution of the luminous flux is divided into:
- classic or park;
- energy-saving street lamps;
- consist of spherical bearings and spherical shape ceiling.Their peculiarity is that the light is evenly distributed in all directions.Diffuser this lamp may be a matt or gloss glass having a property of multipath.
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