The replacement of electric meters does not occur very often.Most manufacturers guarantee up to 16 years of operation of the device without departing from the accuracy of readings.But when there is a need to buy electricity meter, along with it a lot of questions about how to make the right choice.To better navigate all the proposed options, you must understand the essence of the work the meter and all possible modifications of this device.
- induction meter
- Electronic counter
- Specifications counters
- Criteria for choosing the meter
- recognized trademarks electricity
- first characteristic of electricity meters, which divides them into two groups -this principle.On this basis electricity meters are divided into mechanical (induction) and electronic.The work is based on the induction electric meter mechanics.Its design has two main coil - voltage and current.Both these details emit a magnetic field which acts onthe metal disc and twist it.The rotational speed of the disc is in direct proportion to the intensity of the voltage coils.Spinning, twisting drive wheels with numbers, which indicate the amount of electricity consumed.
- Induction meters are electricity consumption have both disadvantages and advantages, but still very widely used.Perhaps the reason that the age of the structure - electronic devices have appeared relatively recently.Is it possible that on the induction electricity meter price is much lower than the electron.
- advantages of mechanical devices - low price and long life.Even 50 years after the installation, the device often continues to operate within the specified accuracy class.The disadvantage is that the original accuracy class does not fall below the target of 2%.
Electronic Counter Electronic Counter
Electricity works perfectly on a different principle.Its design is absolutely no mechanical components, the current is directly supplied to the semiconductor chip and that and keep a record of consumed energy.All information contained in the device solely in digital form and also comes to the electronic board to which it is provided.
The advantages of an electronic device is much more than mechanical.They make a list:
- small size of the device.
- possibility of multi-tariff accounting statements.
- Easy transition to a higher accuracy class.
- an interface that allows you to build a counter into an automated system to monitor energy consumption.
- simple readings from the meter.
Deficiencies in electronic devices of calculating energy consumption are only two - the higher price and low reliability.The reason is because - the simpler mechanism than less complex chips in it, the easier it is to operate and repair.
The diagram below illustrates the classification of the electricity meters of different types.The first division counters held by the type of network to which they connect.It is isolated single-phase and three-phase devices.
- single-phase electricity meter is used in the networks that have only two wires and single phase.In this case, taking into account not only the number of wires, but the overall load on the network.Phase unit copes with a current consumption of up to 10 kW and produces a voltage in the standard 220 V. Because it is such counters are used in conventional private households and apartments.Phase meter is used in a three-phase network only embodiment, when each phase is set to a separate device, i.e. in this case, the meter must be 3.
- phase electricity meter mounted respectively on the three-phase network.The need for such equipment arises in enterprises with large consumption of electricity in the total shield on the apartment building, etc.In private homes is only set if the equipment is available with high energy consumption, for example, regularly used by welder.The three-phase system enables the output 380 and protects the room from electrical surges.
- next factor, which is classified by instruments measuring the level of energy consumption - the tariff.Manufacturers offer available as one-tariff and two-tariff electricity meter.There are also multi-tariff modification.The essence of this device is that it allows you to measure the amount of current consumed by the given rates at different times of the day.This approach to the estimates can significantly reduce costs.
- Another characteristic of electricity - a type of energy, which the measurements are made.Devices with one phase only measure the amount passing through the device active energy.Three-phase work on several fronts, they measure active energy, reactive, and the direction of flow.These measurements help to reduce energy costs and improve quality, as there is a number of reactive power compensation.Especially useful this supplement for industrial buildings, which connect the meter passes through the transformer.
- If we talk about energy savings, it cut its consumption can not only correctly selected and installed equipment, and installed on the electricity meter magnet.This device is suitable for indicating devices, it simply slows down or completely stops the movement of the rotating metal parts.That is, the current continues to flow through the meter into the room, but his account is not conducted.Using this or a similar means, it should be remembered that this method is not legitimate, and subject to penalties.
Criteria for choosing the meter
Having dealt with the basics of the device and the classification of electricity, begin to explore the parameters of their choice.In order to acquire the optimal variant of the device, you need to know some details about the electrical network in the premises for which it was bought, and the parameters of the instrument itself.
- Buy counter for one phase or for three.Required Phase device depends on the type of the electrical network in the premises.To get this information, do not need to contact the authorities of the power utility, it is enough to carefully study the panel old counter.If it listed numbers 220/230 V, single-phase device is needed.If it is checked at 220/380 or 230/400 V, the necessary device for three phases.To change the phase character of the network address in the organization responsible for the power supply and draw up the necessary documents.
- rated current of the device.Basically all counts the consumption of electric current devices operate in the range of load is not more than 50-60 A and the power 15 kW.Standard counters for private homes are just an indicator of the nominal current.But if the electrical characteristics of the network exceeds the consumption of 15 kW, the device requires a maximum load of 100 A. These data are indicated on the opening machine room.If the panel contains the figure of up to 40 A, the counter needs to index 60 A. If this number exceeds 40, then the device must be purchased by 100 A. It is not necessary to install a device with a large measure than required by the power grid, soas this will cause the suspicion of the organization responsible for the power supply and the counter will have to be replaced.
- appliance with one or several tariff.This criterion is considered individually.Often, supplying energy companies provide different prices for day and night tariff.It is necessary to find out whether there is a possibility to pay in this way, and then make a decision on setting tariff meters.If billing at night and during daytime the same, the tariff meters for electricity costs will not reduce simply useless.
- apparatus with different attachment methods.This indicator does not affect the performance of the device itself, but it will help make the procedure easier installation.The two most common ways to mount - three screws or DIN-rail.The first method is used in conventional electrical panels and meets all the indicator counter and some electronic.Mounting via DIN-rail is used only in electronic mechanisms.If you purchased the product under the rail, then it is necessary to buy himself a fixing mechanism, as in the standard shield its presence is not provided.
- presence of additional functions.Some models of electronic meters have a variety of additional functions.Among them appears displaying information about the current, voltage and frequency.Accounting counter when no voltage in the network, lighting and much more.These functions do not affect the performance of the device, but make it more user-friendly operation.Because when you buy an electric meter on their availability should pay attention.
- accuracy class of the instrument.You should also pay attention to the accuracy class of the meter as possible errors do not play into the hands of the consumer.Appliances have the figure at 2.0, which is the most optimal for them.Counters with class 0.5 are suitable for rapidly varying loads and installed mainly in industrial buildings.
recognized trademarks electricity
Household electricity meters - this is one of the instruments for which it is not necessary to overpay by buying imported goods.Foreign manufacturers are offering high quality products, but there are Russian brands that offer devices of the same class, but at a reasonable price.Russian counters are certified and comply with all standards of quality, or rather state standards.Among the many titles released several brands that have been repeatedly tested by different companies and are widely used in industry and in private homes.
- Energomera.The company was founded in Stavropol, now manufacturing production runs on seven plants located in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine.The main specialization of the company - devices for metering of energy consumption.The company offers a wide range of mechanical and electronic devices.The price of products ranges from 13 to 330 EUR.Highlights such series:
- unit with single-phase and single tariff.Mark SE101, SE200, CE6807.
- unit with single-phase and multi-tariff.Mark SE102, SE201, SE205, SE208
- unit with three-phase and single tariff.Mark SE300, SE302, TSE6803, TSE6804.
- unit with three-phase and multi-tariff.Mark CE301, CE303, SE304, SE305, SE306, TSE6850.
- meters "Mercury" from Incotex.The first factory was established in Moscow, now distributed power plants 7, 3 of which are beyond the borders of the Russian Federation.The company develops and manufactures various electronic equipment, are presented in the assortment and electricity meters.Key areas of work - high-tech high-tech equipment.Under the trademark "Mercury" lists all classes of electricity.
- Moscow plant instrumentation - MZEP.Founded in the middle of the last century.The range includes not only the electricity meters, and various specific radio equipment.Under the brand name are available both electronic and mechanical electricity meters.Induction meters are presented SB-505 model, which has a single phase and a single tariff.Prices for the products of the company range from 13 to 85 EUR.Electronic models are the following brands:
- One phase, one tariff - ESR-52.
- One phase, several tariffs - ESR-55.
- Three phase, several tariffs - ESR-561, 565.
guided by proven manufacturers in the market, we should also pay attention to the production companies that work nearby.The prices for their products, usually are much lower and the quality at the same level as that of the brands tested.Also it is necessary to ask the price of the counters in an organization that is engaged in supplying electricity.Often these agencies buy equipment in bulk and offer its customers a very nice price for it.