wiring in the house with his hands or wiring in the apartment with his hands - this is possible, but risky.Of course, any type of work can be learned, the more builders.However, an electrician - an area which requires a particularly good knowledge of the theory and serious practice.Clumsy experiments with wiring can be fraught.When planning to install wiring with their hands need to know the sequence of work and nuances.
- Wiring Harness
- wiring in a wooden house
- Repair wiring
- Video - wiring
- $ cost of wiring
household wiring begins witha detailed plan.The circuit wiring necessary for several reasons:
- allows you to calculate the amount of material: how many and what should be done, with some sections as sockets, switches, junction boxes;
- determines the location of wiring and power elements;
- needed for future maintenance and repair flush.
IMPORTANT! Mount wiring, especially hidden, without schemes is virtually impossible!
Single-line circuit diagram and a plan diagram of the apartment or house, made in the scale, coated with a distribution groups needed for subsequent quality wiring.
in the house and the apartment has often an introductory and an internal electrical panel.From being the last line in the room.
main group, which can be broken down consumers:
- powerful devices;
- sockets and lighting bathrooms;
- outlet and lighting the kitchen;
connect all the wiring points in the same group do not recommend - too great a burden.
In preparing schemes planned supply system RCD protection devices, which are installed on each distribution group.
In charting wiring affect the estimated location of the appliances and their power to determine the number and location of outlets and the required wire size.
wiring diagram in the house and the wiring diagram of the apartment, in principle, differ only by entering the electricity: the house it goes on the air line, and in the apartment - the cable from the panel on the floor.Wiring diagram in the garage may involve putting electricity from centralized power lines or from home, by air or by underground methods.
apartment - this is usually concrete or brick walls covered with plaster or plasterboard finished.
wiring in the apartment can be hidden or combined.
mass of options: wiring can be mounted to the plaster, and then it is covered, wiring in the apartment can be made shtroblenie plaster, carried in the cavities of the plasterboard, etc. used for wiring pipe, corrugated PVC or flexible metal hose, open wiring is mostly laid in cable ducts, etc.
There are certain rules and tips to help you perform quality wiring in the apartment.
For security switchboard installed machines that protect the devices against short circuit and burnout, and protective devices, which, when surges disconnect consumers.To recommend a separate toilet RCD due to excessive moisture.
has its own characteristics in wiring in the bathroom: it must not be in boxes, it is undesirable and placing it in the switch.You can install the outlet. for humid rooms need to choose waterproof wiring devices with the ground.
marking a wire harness for a strictly horizontal and vertical lines.Power lines should not cross each other.The track should always be conducted in parallel to any wall.If the wiring is carried out under the floor, the route must be at a certain distance from the wall.
mainly in new homes today use copper wiring - it is more durable than aluminum, the rest in most of the old apartments.
Wire, which shall not be less than 2 mm.kv. always selected greater than the calculated, which is determined depending on the planned load on the network. allowable current density for copper wire should not exceed 8A / mm.kv. distribution groups for different needs with different wire cross-section.
wire extending into the cavities must be protected pipes, sleeves or corrugations.
Pulling harness with metal pipes and sleeves, ribbed PVC ensures interchangeability wiring without disturbing the finish.
All wiring must be only in distribution boxes and they must have access to, if necessary, could be something to fix.Wiring can be performed by soldering or by means of terminals.
Securing wires and mounting boxes for outlets and switches done using plaster or stucco.
Sockets throughout the apartment shall not be less than 1 per 6 sq.m.In smokers redkoispolzuemyh such as a corridor, enough 1-2 outlets in the kitchen is desirably set at several 3-4 groups of outlets (depending on the number and placement of the art).Having an extra outlet can protect yourself from the inconvenience of using extension cords and related hazards.
recommended sockets and switches with copper and ceramic inner contacts.
Location of sockets and switches are not strictly regulated, but the outlet should be placed at a height of not less than 30 cm from the floor, which is dictated by security concerns.Switches can be placed at any convenient arm's height.
If we generalize, to carry out the wiring in the apartment needed: knowledge, detailed wiring diagrams, RCD, machines, cables and copper wires of several sections of plastic or metal distribution and installation boxes, corrugated, boxes or metal hoses for installationwires, screws, dowels, nails, fasteners, switches and sockets.
One proven wiring accessories manufacturers - French Legrand. required for mounting the gloves for protection, voltage indicator, a Bulgarian or a hammer and chisel to shtrobleniya, hammer, screwdriver, wire cutters.
wiring in a wooden house
Wiring is carried out in a private house on the same principles as in the apartment.However, the wiring in a wooden house has its own characteristics.Due to the fact that the wooden house is a base fuel, the wiring in a wooden house requires special security measures.Some lead wires through the corrugated PVC, but it is not in compliance with the EMP.Install wiring with their hands in a country house should be done:
- From flame-retardant (self-extinguishing) wires and cables with good insulation, such as VVGng.
- Hidden wiring - for elektrokanalizatsii, does not support combustion, that is made of metal: metal (usually copper) pipes, steel box, which must be grounded.If you use plastic and corrugated boxes, they should be surrounded by a layer of non-combustible material - is actually mounted in plaster.
- using metal components: distribution and installation boxes.
- connections for tightness to the closure of an electrical arc not moved beyond the pipes and missed the combustible material.
- tree, from which the walls and floors must be dry.
Of course, the rules are quite strict and a wiring harness, for example, the country seems to be unreasonably time-consuming and costly.But security is paramount.
Another step in ensuring the safety of a wooden house - Installation of the differential relay or RCD.
Wiring electrical network can be performed antique: open wiring mounted on porcelain insulators between cable and tree remains the gap - the wires are not touching the walls and ceilings.Perhaps the only more or less security and compliance paving the way for open wiring flammable structures.Given the openness of the wiring should be carefully approach the selection of cable.
electrification of homes must be carried out immediately in full, instead of slices and must be completed before the installation of floors, ceilings and doors.
begins with summarizing the cable into the house from the centralized power line or external distribution board, in accordance with the scheme is carried out on the premises wiring harness, mounted internal switchboard prepared holes for switches and sockets.After completion of the finishing works are installed all devices.
Wiring in the bath or in the sauna is more difficult: in addition to combustible base has a humid environment and the stove.
- wires used with double insulation, moisture-proof and heat-resistant, connected only by means of terminals.
- wiring should not be laid over the fire.
- directly in damp areas not placed switches and sockets.They may be in the dressing room and must have a degree of protection of at least IP-44.For fixtures requirements even higher.
- sure grounding, lightning protection, install an RCD.
While installing wiring in the garage also should be aware of the security measures.The wires are routed in earthed metal ducts and pipes are installed tight fixtures and switches, etc.
Wherever lay cables have a color value of the wiring.According to paragraph 2.1.31 of the SAE, wiring should enable easy recognition of the entire length of wires by color:
- blue - to indicate the neutral or middle conductor of electricity networks;
- two-color combination of green and yellow - to indicate a protective or protective conductor;
- two-color combination of green and yellow over the entire length with blue marks on the ends of the line, which are applied during installation - to refer to the combined zero-worker and protective conductor;
- black, brown, red, purple, gray, pink, white, orange, turquoise - to refer to the phase conductor.
Most often the question is not how to do, and how to change the wiring. wiring repair may be complete or partial.
Since mostly in apartments and houses unfinished, to replace all or part of the wiring to find the route.You can use the finder wiring - such devices are produced by both domestic and foreign producers.To find a place where paved the wiring under the plaster, you need to drive such a scanner on the wall - a strong sound or light signal, he will point the track.
replace the old aluminum wiring or better do not touch at all, or replace it completely around the home.This is due to fact that the "age" the aluminum unreliable and fragile, rapidly oxidized, its insulation is degraded, and in connection with new copper wires reaction occurs, breaking the contact.
wiring repair often still associated with a compound of copper and aluminum wires.This partial replacement of the old to the new wiring and the connection opening aluminum power cable with copper wires.Such a combination of the above reasons, it is impossible to carry out twisting.For this purpose the terminal clamps and pads.
terminal block for the wiring - it is one of the most effective ways of connecting wires from copper and aluminum. most popular terminal blocks for wiring of different types and cross sections are manufactured by Wago. material from which made their contacts, and a special coating does not allow heterogeneous wires oxidize.
wires inserted into the terminals, fixed spring clip.Terminals of another kind - Screw - for connections with aluminum are not suitable - they damage such wires.
What type of connection used in areas with a large number of electrical appliances, for example, in the kitchen depends on the load on the network,section wire, wire material, etc.
Video - wiring
$ cost of wiring
As you can see, the wiring is too tough for a layman.Qualitative performance of work on electrification - a pledge of safety and peace of mind home owners.The cost of this type of work corresponds to its complexity.When planning repairs, you need to know how much material and the cost of wiring.
wiring in the apartment - the price rewiring begins in Moscow from 15 000 rubles.Wiring in the apartment - the price rewiring in Kiev from 3000-4000 hryvnia.
Each project depends on the area of the premises required kinds of work, the number of junction boxes, outlets, fixtures, etc., the material can be included in the price and can be bought separately.