When planning the construction of a residential house there is a lot of hesitation and doubt about whether it makes sense to plan for the construction of ground floor lay.To properly make a decision, you should immediately find out whether you need to be further ground floor.According to the experts, the construction of residential buildings with ground floor will be the most economical and rational.But what happens the construction of the ground floor with their hands without violating any requirements and regulations that apply in construction?
- Purpose basement
- Types cap
- Building basement
- wall thickness
- Depth plinth
- Preparation excavation
- Foundation blocks
construction of houses with a ground floor belong to the class of economical construction.First, let's figure out what the ground floor.There are various explanations for this.Archi
height of the floor according to the standards should be at least 2.5 meters.Basements can be used as a basement, cellar or utility room.From it you can also make a living on or off the living room.In addition, the building that is built with a ground floor, looks more respectable, and home insulation performance increase.
If you spend building a house in the city, you do not interfere with the extra square footage.Using these surpluses in its sole discretion, in the future will quickly recoup pay back all the costs that were incurred during the construction of the cap.Basement lets you forget about stress, which have walls of the house, which is important at a certain type of soil.
In construction distinguish 3 types of base: bulging, recessed and flush with the base foundation.Burying called the most common type of foundation, but not for the reason that it looks just beautiful.The fact is that it is this kind of cap undergoes the least penetration of moisture, because the water drains from it quickly and it protects against damage foundation, basement and walls of the house.
If the walls of your apartment building thin, in this case, you will approach the most prominent base.This kind of cap is the most defensible, if you want to arrange a ground floor room, which is located almost under the ground, and, of course, should be warm.But if you plan after the construction of the ground floor used for storage of useless things, it is quite possible to make a thin base.
It is not recommended to do the plinth flush with the foundation, since it will serve as the beginning of the wall and will not give you the desired protection against moisture.This cap must also cover the waterproofing materials that will be uneconomical, and it does not give beauty to your home.
We have already noted that the height of the ground floor should reach 2.5 meters, which is regulated by the relevant documents.But many developers tend to increase it even more, to turn the ground floor into a full first floor.To increase the height of the technology used most often digging the ground to a certain depth, some of your personal needs.
So you started the construction of his house with the construction of the basement.And the first time you need to decide which is the thickness of the walls.If your home is located on a solid ground, you can make the thickness of the walls of the ground floor of the same thickness of the walls of the building.
If you plan to build a house on unfavorable ground, the walls make the basement a little thicker - 20 centimeters will be enough.With the construction of wooden buildings, you can build ground floor with corpulent concrete blocks.
If a site contains almost all year ground water in the soil at a distance of one meter from the surface level, it is recommended to deepen the basement no more than one meter.In the place where the house is located, you can make lifting of soil by the application phase of the soil around the house.The end result, a raised platform, but the technology of building ground floor will cost a bit more expensive.
If a house is too big layer of groundwater, it is possible to resort to such procedures as the draining of land and diversion of water from the foundation of the house.If a residential building groundwater formed exclusively seasonal, it is possible to use the technique of protecting the foundation against lateral forces, if the soil is chilled, and under a special angle to lay drainage pipe.
At this stage, it is strongly recommended to install a water column, as in the construction process will take very much water.Just prepare the landscape of the area and dig a pit excavated.For example, a house that has a size of 14 by 11 meters, the required excavation depth nearly two meters.Remember, when the excavator to dig a hole, you need at least two cars, which will take back toward the ground.
If you have to dig a pit in the early spring, you can see it at the bottom of the accumulation of water, so in this case, you should wait until the water is gone by itself.You can also try to pump out the water pump.Excavator digging a hole is not very smooth, so you will need to level the bottom and corners of the pit.
must then construct a concrete pad.Make markings on the bottom of the pit and label sizes at home.In place of passage bearing walls need to dig a trench.If you are planning to build their own hands the ground floor, then this job you need to do yourself, as shown in the video on the construction of the basement.
sure to keep an eye on the depth of the trench, so that it turned out not less than 30 centimeters.It will not hurt to strengthen it by the board.Pour it on top of the rubble, proarmiruyte metal rods and pour concrete.After this must wait three weeks.
Then you must go to the work related to the waterproofing, for the construction of the ground floor is connected with the foundation, and in this case it is important to do things right.Otherwise, the moisture gets on the ground floor, and it could eventually even cause the collapse of the house or building in general.
On the outside of the house around the perimeter to protect the foundation necessary to perform a sufficiently broad blind area of concrete.To avoid the destruction of the basement and the basement masonry, recessed into the ground, they must be protected from the outside using a special roll waterproofing material preheated and priplavlennogo to the material of the building structure.
in this process to date has found wide application waterproofing - practical and easy-to-use material that can be bought everywhere.Besides the cost of construction of the basement using it you will be pleased with.Waterproofing the foundation, do the following: Place first layer of bituminous mixture, then place the flashing and then place another layer of mastic.
For reliable protection against moisture apartment house little to do only the internal waterproofing.Qualified experts advise not to neglect and conducting exterior waterproofing.Somewhere half a meter from the wall basement dig a deep hole and fill it with pre-prepared materials: clay layer, then a layer of gravel, then a layer of concrete solution with the addition of gravel and sand.
Building basement foundation involves the use of large foundation blocks.Such blocks can not be manually put into place, this process requires the use of special equipment to work.With self-construction of the basement often choose the belt assembly or the foundation.
When calculating its parameters is of great importance the depth of its inception.If you have turned on the account that the foundation should have a height of at least 2 meters, it means that it is necessary to make the depth of laying the foundation of 2 meters 15 centimeters.But it is not flush with the ground.When the foundation became strong at 80 percent, that is, within ten days after the fill, you can begin to construct a base.
best way to build a basement for the price is the use of foundation blocks.Units taken place around the perimeter of the house.Foundation blocks must lie as flat as possible, it allows you to quickly carry out the process further plastering.
units fasten to each other by means of cement.In between the foundation blocks you need to arrange special holes for water and wiring.Make sure that the zero-room windows were quite large, or in the basement will not have enough light.
Do not forget about the holes that are required for the ventilation space.They must be done at a distance of less than 15 centimeters and at the same level with the ground.Sami hole mesh cover to the garbage was not about them, and in the winter cover them with a thick cloth.The final number of units should eventually rise above the ground to a height of about one meter.
Further, these units must be laid overlapping the first floor, but it is recommended to make a block on top of the belt.It performs two functions: the alignment of all tiers of horizontal and connected to each other blocks.Often between the plates and put the brick blocks, but it is best to build a reinforced concrete belt - put in the wooden formwork and pour concrete reinforcement.
lower ground series will act as a basis for future walls, take the entire load of the house and there are objects and pass to the foundation blocks that are below, they are subject to the highest demands.Consequently, the scheme laying bricks must be possible to satisfy these requirements.
Number of rows of brick, which are necessary to achieve a certain ceiling height basement, is to determine in advance.With self-construction of the ground floor need to know and follow some simple rules.The basis for all future work is the construction of the first row.
Before installing brick mortar is recommended to lay the first row of "dry", without the use of a binder.Procedure for stacking the first row of bricks is carried out on the waterproofing layer, which previously laid on the upper surface of a monolithic block or foundation.
Do not forget to follow the necessary geometrical parameters of the future building.Deriving corner bricks need to periodically measure and achieve a perfect diagonal rectangular wall.You can not work without the straightness and flatness control series, and without checking on horizontal and vertical surfaces of the series.
described above is especially important if the walls of the house of different complex elements, such as multi-faceted bay windows, the use in the construction of which the entire article gives an attractive and interesting appearance, but significantly complicates the process of construction of the cap with your hands.
process of building basement completes the installation of reinforced concrete plate overlaps the upper ranks of it.Instead, you can use the wooden floors made of lumber, rough and finish making the floor trim and always putting rolls or slab insulation.
Samu formwork can be bought ready-made or build their own.Formwork for ceiling panels and grab the board.Necessary planed boards obteshite with the side to be fixed to the concrete.Thereafter fabricate one shields which need to be properly secure.
Maintain millimeter gaps between the boards and measuring differences in height between the two boards.Remember that you need to do the formwork for the foundation is not vertical, but horizontal.
And finally I want to add that the ground floor can be erected and made of natural stone, but this process requires great skill from the builder, because stones are of different sizes and shapes.Therefore, we recommend to give preference to the construction of the cap made of red brick, which is amenable to plastering to give an aesthetic appearance.