destructive moisture exposed to all the elements of the building structure, which directly affects their reliability and durability.To minimize the effects of moisture and extend the life of the building, at all stages of its construction, from pouring the foundation, erection of walls, roofing and finishing interior decoration, special attention should be paid to waterproofing.Depending on the design elements and the conditions of further operation of selected certain waterproofing materials.Creating a reliable waterproofing coating - it is quite simple, requiring knowledge and understanding of what the waterproofing, and ability to handle the tool.
- requirements for waterproofing materials
- Types and classification of waterproofing materials
- rolling waterproofing materials
- waterproofing membrane waterproofing materials on the basis of mastics
- Liquid waterproofing materials
- powder waterproofing materials
Requirementsto waterproofing materials
When choosing one or another of waterproofing materials should pay attention to their performance.On how waterproofing will meet the aggressive environmental conditions, will depend on its reliability and durability.By waterproofing the following requirements apply:
- Weathering - the ability to maintain the original characteristics over time under the influence of various atmospheric phenomena.This parameter is measured in points by a special scale or displayed time frame (days, months, years).
- biological stability - resistance to aggressive influence of a variety of bacteria, fungi and microorganisms.
- Waterproof - the ability not to absorb and hold water.This is the main parameter for the waterproofing materials.
- Water resistance - resistance to prolonged exposure to water without losing the original properties.
- Durability - the ability to maintain the quality and integrity of the original structure over time under the influence of aggressive environmental factors.
- Water vapor permeability - the ability to pass water vapor through the layer of waterproofing.This option is very important when creating a waterproofing roofs and interior walls.
- Resistance to large temperature changes indicates the ability to maintain its waterproofing properties and the integrity of the original structure at certain temperatures.Especially important is this parameter to external waterproofing.
- resistance to mechanical damage - the ability to maintain structural integrity at high loads on the surface.
- Chemical resistance - the ability to maintain the original characteristics and structural integrity under the influence of various chemical solvents.
Due to the fact that the different elements of the building structure (foundation, walls, roof), the influence of different environmental factors, selection and arrangement of waterproofing materials should be based on their characteristics.Technology of waterproofing materials of any type based on their properties.
Types and classification of waterproofing materials
Today the market of waterproofing materials you can find a wide range of products in a variety which is easy enough to get lost.To be able to quite easily navigate among the waterproofing materials, need to know their classification and types.
First waterproofing is divided according to the area of its application.It can be for internal or external works .Also waterproofing separated according to the main component - it can be bitumen , mineral components , polymer or bitumen-polymer .
main graduation waterproofing materials is carried out by type.They can be rolled , film , obmazochnye , membrane , powder , penetrating , plastering , Wood banding and painting waterproofing materials.As well as many others, depending on the method of installation and physical condition.The following are the most common waterproofing materials that are used in private construction and renovation.
rolling waterproofing materials
This type of materials has been one of the most popular in the last century.The most accessible materials of this type - roofing , roofing , Stekloruberoid .They were used as a waterproofing material for the foundation , roofs and floors .The basis for the roll-type materials served as cardboard or fiberglass impregnated with asphalt with the addition of basalt aggregate.More modern waterproofing materials roll type created as a multi-layer membrane and combine quality water and heat insulation.Stacking of rolled materials is carried out in several ways.
first - a simple flooring on the surface at any other building material, followed by joint attachment.
second method is laying roll waterproofing fusing to the surface using a gas burner.This method is a fire hazard, so using it, so it is important to comply with all fire regulations.
third laying method is sticking to the surface of the roll of waterproofing using various adhesives or special cements.
Another sibling roll waterproofing materials is a waterproofing membrane.In contrast to the roofing material, it is made from polymers such as polyethylene , polypropylene , PVC . Polyethylene films are quite common for the roof waterproofing thanks to its performance.Everything else, polyethylene waterproofing used to create concrete screed indoors.Among waterproofing membrane particularly noteworthy PVC membranes that are layered cake of different polymers with specific characteristics and properties.Stacking waterproofing membrane by simple deck or with special adhesives, wherein the membrane film can be already with the adhesive layer.
waterproofing materials on the basis of mastics
second most popular waterproofing materials are mastic.They are plastic adhesives hot or cold type .The area of application is rather wide and includes roof , foundations , pools , basement walls .You can also use these waterproofing materials bathroom , kitchen and toilet , treating all overlap joints or floor surface.
Pastes made on the basis of bitumen, various polymers, or a combination of polymers and bitumen.With the development of technology in the construction of the production was made possible with the addition of bitumen mastic gum, which increased insulation and mechanical properties of this type of waterproofing.
Another achievement was the creation of cold mastics .If classical bitumen waterproofing required heating to a certain temperature, the current cold mastics allow you to perform all the work without heating.Apply mastic is quite simple.It's enough to put with a spatula to the surface waterproofing and smooth it with the same spatula or a roller or brush.
Liquid waterproofing materials
This type is a fairly motley collection of different types of waterstops.It can be paint , primer , mastic , adhesives , impregnation , injection materials, and many other flowable materials.
particular note Penetron waterproofing material .It relates to a liquid waterproofing penetrating type.Its principle of operation is based on the penetration into the structure of the base.Applied to the surface by the air penetrates the capillary system and then drying to form crystals, which repel water.A special feature is the possibility of Penetron crystals air through itself and at the same time repulsive water.If you choose waterproofing materials floor in a residential area , should pay attention to the Penetron, as it allows the surface to breathe, and thus does not obstruct the natural circulation of air in the room.Liquid waterproofing materials are applied by conventional spray or brush.
powder waterproofing materials
Such materials are different dry mixtures based on cement with the addition of plasticizers , adhesives and binders components.Their peculiarity is that they are prepared just before application to the surface.The process of preparation is the same as all the dry mixes, - add water and stir thoroughly.The most commonly used of these waterproofing materials for pools , when creating concrete ties or plastering the walls in basements .Powder materials has relatively high waterproofing qualities permeating all possible cracks, fissures and filling any voids are.Unfortunately, waterproofing powder has one major drawback - a mixture of very fast drying.And so you have to make a mixture in small portions and applied at a time in a small area.
To perform high-quality waterproofing, does not require any special skills or abilities.All materials are made of modern technology facilitates the construction and at the same time to achieve the best possible protective effect.The main thing is to choose the right material.This is the key to a successful defense against moisture and long-lasting operation of the entire structure as a whole.