in any home or country cottage comfort and well-being of its inhabitants depends on properly executed ventilation.It removes odors from the premises, regulates humidity, temperature and oxygen saturation of the air mass.In this article we will look at how to make the ventilation in a private home, its varieties and properties.
- algorithm of actions and design
- Varieties and properties
- ventilation air movement in the house
- air flow Air flow through the leakage barriers
- Fresh air ventilation
- influx of air through the built-inValve infiltration
- Fresh air using fans
- Types exhaust air
- natural extraction system
- mechanical exhaust system
- Heat recovery ventilation systems
- equipment recovery systems
- types and properties of the duct
- Hoods Kitchen
algorithm of actions and design
For high quality of installation work on the ventilation:
- calculate the ventilation space;
- choose the transverse dimensions of the duct;
- choose the appropriate type of ventilation;
- determine the course of ducts and installation of equipment;
- defined in terms of air intake and outflow.
In turn, the above-mentioned activities require a professional approach and significant experience in this matter.It would be better if all payments to professionals and direct ventilation device in the home in order to carry out their own savings.
draft ventilation must comply with construction and architectural, operational, economic, and fire protection requirements of regulatory documents.Prior to his transfer to the customer, he asserted in numerous matching organizations.
As a result, you get the design:
- thermal, aerodynamic, air exchange calculations premises;
- bill of materials;
- explanatory note to the working drawings;
- drawings trace the general communications;
- drawing ventilation chamber;
- calculation power ventilation equipment selection.
draft ventilation can be ordered from any reputable specialist company, for example, in "MosKlimat."
ventilation circuit design house looks like:
Varieties and properties ventilation
clean air to a comfortable temperature is definitely important to stay at home.But the speed of its movement in all residential and non-residential premises is also important.It is small, its value is not more than 1m3 / h, creates optimal comfort for the occupants.
This property have a natural ventilation system.
When the installation is inconvenient, it is necessary to resort to other systems - mechanical.The fact is that at lower air velocity requires larger air vent.That is, to pass the same amount of natural ventilation air duct has a size larger than the channel of the mechanical system.
For example, referring to the drawing if pass 300m3 / h.air duct diameter 350 mm is needed with the natural movement of air, the transverse dimension of the pipe mechanical system required 2 times less.Possibility to place on the wall a barrel of natural ventilation is not always available, and submit it to the ceiling are not aesthetically pleasing.
Consequently, for large size of the building is necessary to resort to the help of a mechanical ventilation system.Air velocity therein 4-5m3 / hour.
Moving air in the house
for unimpeded flow to the exhaust ports are set on his way to a special door transfer grille.They are required for any type of ventilation in a private home.Alternatively, between the floor and lower part of the door leaving a gap of 20mm across its width.If the above elements will not be considered broken ventilation.Among other things, open doors, for example, in the bathroom-enabled stretch will be problematic because of the thin air.
Ventilation in the house with his own hands is performed correctly, if it is the most extreme chain "unfavorable" room.Therefore extractor is located in the bathroom or kitchen.
Next we look at the issues at the expense of what factors is the inflow of air and the measures taken to increase its quantity.As mentioned earlier, the air inflow comes naturally and by force.
influx of air through leaks fences
natural inflow of its movement through leaks of the walls, doors and windows called infiltration.
Wooden windows of the Soviet era, who they still have to have a sufficiently large air permeability.If a small area of the house up to 150 m2, the amount of air inflow coming through cracks and crevices of the windows, it is often sufficient.Less significant influx of additional flows through the walls and doors of the house cracks.
Fresh air ventilation
In the first case, the process is either through the window of a wooden box, or through a crack in the half-open window frame PVC.The results of this airing the following:
- significant loss of heat;
- winter cooling window unit with the phenomenon of condensation;
- replacing indoor air lasts 30-80min.
airing through the wide open windows:
- almost instant for 5-10min ventilation;
- no cooling designs.
If fully open for airing all the windows and the front door, we get:
- fast as possible for 3-4min ventilation;
- draft, harmful to health.
When fully airtight outer space (for example, performed an isolated wall insulation with windows from plastic) to create a comfortable microclimate necessary to ventilate the room every hour by any above method.If you find it inconvenient - read more about the built-inlets.
influx of air through the valve built infiltration
natural flow of air into the house can be arranged through special valves that are placed on the windows of PVC or in exterior walls.The technology of manufacture of windows does not provide for leakage, thereby depriving tenants of air flow.Therefore, when buying window select it with the ventilation slot at the top of the box - supply adjustable window flap.
When late, and the windows have been installed, infiltration air inlet is placed in the wall.It looks like a tube through a round shape, passing through the entire structure and closed with 2 sides bars.The valve has an internal grille, which regulates its full opening or closing.The installation of such products produced near windows, where they are easy to hide behind a curtain.
Another option - installation of the valve behind the radiator.This supply air is heated.
infiltration valves are equipped with thermostat and humidity.To comply with the correct direction of air masses from the living rooms in the household, the valves are set in the dining room, living room and bedroom, giving up to 100m3 / h of clean air.Their total amount is dependent on the needs and the calculated inflow special calculation.
Fresh air using fans
If necessary, a large flow of air, so as not to place the valves under each opening, apply a system of forced feeding.It consists of a ventilation network and associated equipment.The network consists of ducts and valves: diffusers, grilles, and others. The system hardware includes: heaters and fans, filters, dampers and silencers.
filter cleans the incoming air from dust particles from the street.Heaters, water or electric, it is heated in the cold season.If the system there are water heaters, hydraulic piping is done, ie,additional equipment Network mixing devices.
Types exhaust air
When building a house project has always provided the device of exhaust channels running inside the walls of bathrooms and kitchens.As a rule, they are placed in the masonry, or take the form of external mines.
natural extraction system
This system applies if:
- air for his removal from the premises is small;
- chosen for the calculation of the cross section of the channel fits in the stone wall, or made in the form of a separate mine.
There vent grille is made just inside the room.
mechanical exhaust system
reduced cross-channel size natural draft can be achieved using mechanical ventilation.For her, in bathrooms installed electric fans.
In today's market there are many varieties of such products.Popular hood with wall mount and straight entrance to the mine shaft.Another option - it's like, hidden type.They are installed in the space behind the ceiling and input to the channel via a duct.
When selecting an exhaust fan flow rate is taken into account the outflow of air from its pressure losses during transportation on air.The stock losses can calculate the seller manufacture equipment knowing the material and the length of ducts in your home.
Management hood often carry a light switch.Duct fans equipped with a time delay time and humidity sensors.Such extracts more expensive than usual.
There are nearly silent fan.They are equipped with special rubber collars, Vibration-damping and sound of the engine.
Heat recovery ventilation systems
Exchanger - is a special unit of the ventilation system designed to save energy for heating or cooling.
Supply and exhaust recovery system is now very popular.The reason is simple.In autumn and winter is spent a lot of heat to warm the fresh air coming from the street.But such a system saves 50% of heat partial warming of cold inflow of warm air exhaust.Why partially?For the reason that, for heating the incoming cold air mass up to 20 degrees the temperature of exhaust air is not enough.In the winter frosts influx heater heats up, which is installed in the heat exchanger.
If there is air conditioning in the house, the air is cooled by a summer influx bit.This reduces the load on the entire air conditioning system.After passing through the heat exchanger, ostuzhennoy conditioned exhaust stream will cool the warmer the air inflow.Such scheme of work.
The heat recovery ventilation systems supply and return air mass produced using forced built-in fans.
equipment recovery systems
Air exchange houses a large area is generally greater than 800m3 / h.It follows that the dimensions of the mechanical units are sufficiently large for ventilation.Therefore it is better ahead of time to determine their location.Such a utility room you can arrange within the attic or basement.Attic pre-insulated, eliminating harmful effects on ventilation equipment.
types and properties of the duct
when the mode of mechanical ventilation forced the house to the wiring on the premises of his exhaust and supply air ducts are used.They are rectangular, round and flexible.
lowest resistance to movement of the flow in circular pipes with a smooth inner surface.
The rectangular pipe it more.
greatest resistance to the air transport observed in flexible pipes due to their corrugated structure.They are used for small parts turning duct or hoods cookers.
Based on the above, the wiring line is made of rigid pipe and its branches - the corrugated pipe.Starting from the air intake grille to the ventilation unit, any ducts are insulated with mineral wool to avoid condensation.
air that removed hood above the cooker in the calculation of the ventilation is not included.This is due to its frequency of operation and intended purpose - removing unwanted odors from their place of education.
Summarizing, we can say that all, or almost all, of how to make the ventilation in the house we discussed above in detail.I wish you health and clean air!