for comfortable living and well-being needs fresh air.But often this is not enough and is not the last role played by such parameters as its humidity and temperature.Thus, the interaction of these three elements provide qualitative terms, because if you remove at least one element of this bunch of comfort is not out of the question.Therefore, it is important competent selection of the ventilation system, which is responsible for the influx of pure and stable outflow of air saturated with impurities.This project includes the choice of type of ventilation, the location of the equipment and its installation.The article discusses how to improve ventilation in the house with his own hands.
- Types of ventilation systems residential building
- Why forced-air ventilation in the house
- Calculation of ventilation systems at home
- The main elements of the ventilation system
- Basic principles of installation of ventilation
- How to ventilationin a house with heat recovery, and flexible ducting
Types of ventilation systems residential building
It is represented by several species:
- Natural ventilation at home , where circulation occurs without installing any hardware.In this case, the warm air is forced out cool air through an open window or vent.
- mechanical ventilation. This type involves the use of fans, heaters, motors and so on.In turn, the system is divided into the following subtypes:
- plenum .Fresh air enters the room by the mechanical equipment, and the outflow occurs naturally.Their power is determined by careful calculation;
- exhaust .The exhaust air is removed with a conventional fan or hood.You can also set the damper, which allows you to manually control the air flow.They are usually mounted in kitchens, bathrooms and attics;
- supply and exhaust .Its task is to ensure the timely flow of clean air and the outflow of contaminated.The best effect of the system is achieved by the simultaneous operation of all devices involved with equal performance.It may consist of complex installation or composing elements.
- full climate control carried out by combining the ventilation system and air-conditioning.This technique can be independent of each other, in this case, the installation of domestic air-conditioner.More sophisticated equipment is composed of the unit and ventilation equipment is installed, for example, on a technical floor or attic loggia.Such a system will support the set temperature, the humidity level for each room.
Why forced-air ventilation in the house
- in wooden houses, log buildings ventilation occurs naturally.And if the house also features a fireplace or stove, the outflow of air occurs through chimneys.Are of great importance and windows where the frame of wood helps air exchange.
- Such a material used in the construction of town houses, not only provides a natural ventilation, but also maintains a comfortable microclimate.So, in the summer in wooden houses cool and in winter they retain heat well away from heaters.
- But in an age of progress of the house of reinforced concrete and plastic windows, on the one hand, protected from the street noise and smog, and on the other - creating a kind of capsule where ventilation is almost completely absent.
- Standard vent can not cope with his appointment, so unpleasant odors, condensation, mustiness remain indoors.After all, the result of his work depends on many variables.Factors such as wind speed and direction, outside temperature determine the quality of ventilation.And opening a door or window - in the room gets dust, polluted air and drafts occur.
- therefore increasingly installed ventilation equipment, creating some pressure for the movement of air masses.Of course, it is necessary to provide for its installation at the stage of designing the house.Competent calculations of power and the proper distribution of the individual components of the system will provide not only a constant circulation of air, but also pre-clean it, warm or cool.
- Such a system can be inlaid type, that is composed of individual components.It is able to perform a ventilation space of any size from the standard to the entire multistory apartment buildings.But the setting is fraught with difficulties, and without the professionals can not do.
- There is a one-piece version, where all the components are arranged in the housing, which significantly reduces the noise level, operating equipment.Besides the collection, debugging, testing of components takes place in the factory, thereby achieving maximum efficiency.Installation takes only a few hours and do not require large amounts of supplies.
Calculation of ventilation systems at home
Below are the main parameters and some additional factors that are crucial in the design of the ventilation system.
Performance. This parameter determines the ability of the equipment to pass a certain amount of air per hour.The formula for this value is as follows:
L = nˣSˣH
L - performance;
n - multiplicity of air - how many times per 1 hour completely change the air in the room.In residential areas, this measure is 1-2, uninhabited - 2-3;
S - Area (m²)
H - height of the ceiling.
Example: an apartment of 70 sqm with a ceiling height of 2.5 m, where the number of air ≈ 2, then L (fan power) = 70ˣ2,5ˣ2 = 350 m³ / h.
power heater. Heated air from the street to pick up carried heater, determine the necessary power of the device can be on the following formula:
P = LˣΔT / 3
P - power of the heater;
L - fan capacity;
? T - temperature difference, for example, outside temperature is - 28 °, and it is necessary to warm up to + 18 °, so that the difference be 46 °.
Example: P = 350ˣ46 / 3 = 5.366 (W) or ≈ 5 kW - power equipment.
distribution grid.Such parameter as square lattice, is also important.The formula for its calculation the following:
S = L / t / υ
S - area of distribution grid;
t - time hour (3600 seconds);
υ - the rate at which air passes through the grate.Here, the default is 2 m / s, at a high rate - you will hear a whistle.
Example: S = 350/3600/2 = 0.048 m², is determined by adjusting the size of the distribution grid.In this case, out - 300h150 cm.
The main elements of the ventilation system
- Grille. Its main task - to prevent the ingress of foreign matter in the ventilation system.Type lattice is selected depending on the section of the duct.
- air valve acts as a damper blocks the flow of outside air into the system after it is turned off.The most common are the following types of valves:
- after shutting down the system, the flap covers the supply of air masses.This action is performed by a spring.Such a check valve is cheap, but it shows the result of an ineffective;
- valve servo actuated automatic installation.The effectiveness of the closure by an electric drive is much higher, but such equipment makes it - more expensive;
- air manual valve used for closing air access from the outside when shutting down the system for an extended period of time.This action will help to avoid the formation of condensation in the ducts.
- filter. This component is used for air supply of various types of pollution.To delay the particles greater than 10 microns is installed so-called primary filter, but may also be further mounted and a fine filter (1 micron) and superfine filter (0.1 micron).The filter itself must be cleaned 1 time per month.Check whether cleaning is possible by installing a pressure sensor that will determine the level of pressure on the inlet and outlet of the filter.Growing pressure difference suggests pollution filter element.
- Supply and exhaust unit. This part of the ventilation equipment can be water, steam or electric.As a general rule, think about installing only after the construction of the house, so preference is given to technicians working on electricity.But it is worth noting that for the premises area exceeding 100 m², rational use of the water heater, as the equipment supplied by the mains, the operation will be much more expensive.
- steam heater mainly installed in commercial buildings, manufacturing plants.Although he has high performance, but for its smooth operation are necessary steam generating device.
- fan and muffler .The main component of any of the ventilation system is selected according to two criteria - performance and pressure.By design, they are:
- axial (there are similarities with appliances) designed to inject a large amount of air, but at low pressure.This fan should not be used in a system with long air ducts, air flow rate is quite low;
- radial (squirrel cage) - ideal for an extensive system.
Tip: there is absolutely noiseless fans, so here it is necessary to provide for installation of the silencer .Its soundproofed facing such as the mineral wool or fiberglass will reduce the amount of noise.
- ducts. To create a network using the air ducts and the following components: adapters, tees, bends.Section size depends on the volume, air flow capacity and speed.Steel ducts are circular and square section, made from flexible multilayer foil.The smallest resistance have circular ducts with a smooth surface, rectangular - a little more, and the greatest parameters have flexible ducts.That is why they are not recommended on long runs.But their use is sometimes the only way, especially in turns in a small area.For this reason, the main duct are made of steel materials, branch - from floppy.
- outs.For uniform dispersion of air flow through the room diffusers meet.They are square or round bars, which are mounted on the ceiling or wall.With them comes the pressure regulation and direction of clean air.
- Automation. handling standard allows only perform simple actions on / off the ventilation system.Complex version has enhanced functionality, such as an automatic tracking of air temperature on the street, when it lowered the signal fed special sensors and the controller increases the power of the heater.The automatic system is equipped with various sensors (thermostat, humidistat, pressure sensors), which determine the degree of contamination of the filter, monitor the air valve, if necessary, it will be closed and so on.
Basic principles of installation of ventilation
- course design and the subsequent installation of the system should be entrusted to professionals who know all the details of how the equipment and its installation.After the calculation is important, not only the total area of the house (the cottage), but the configuration and purpose of the premises;the number of living people, animals;availability of household appliances, as well as the geographical position of buildings and climatic features of the terrain.
- Supply unit should be located so that it was a free for replacement filters, diagnosis or repair.
- Mount system should begin before finishing, because here you must work holes in the walls or ceilings with a diameter of 125-200 cm.
- much thermal energy can be saved by using the heat exchanger built into the system unit.Output air stream passing through the heat exchanger, "gives" its heat (up to 85%) to the supply air and cooled completely derived from the premises.This device may be a battery, or a rotary plate type.
- with heat recovery equipment is quite expensive and involves a two-fold increase in air ducts.Therefore, their installation in houses with a small area is not rational.
- Increased productivity ventilation system would entail an increase in its capacity, noise, energy consumption, maintenance costs.
How to make the house ventilation with heat recovery, and flexible ducting
- necessarily work should begin with a scheme, which will be determined by entry / exit points, the passage of air ducts.
- After measuring the thickness of the wall (ceiling), cut the required hole diameter.Before installing the pipe inserted into it a check valve prevents small particles, dust and rain.
- fix it with dowels or screws, depending on the surface, do not forget about accessibility for maintenance.
- Connect unit to duct system using metal clamps.Thermal insulation of air ducts will help prevent the formation of condensate and considerably increase the efficiency.
- ducts are fixed to the ceiling using special fasteners.Flexible pipes should be slightly tightened, so as not to reduce their section.
- The extra length is cut off with a knife or scissors for metal.
- free end of the duct is attached to the nozzle.
- supply duct conducted on the premises in accordance with a procedure.There are various fittings: elbows, couplings, tees, and so on.
- Spigot for supply system is installed in the same way as for exhaust, but keeping a considerable distance between them.This will avoid the selection, just remove the air.Mounted Check Valve.
- It is the turn to carry the divorce exhaust duct.Inlet and air outlet in a room recommended positioned in opposite corners.
- checked the connections.Then you install the control panel, and mounted lattice.
ventilation shows a high efficient work and is ideal for installation in private homes, cottages.Precise control of the air exchange, set parameters allows to achieve optimum microclimate in all rooms.And automation and control panel provide maximum comfort.The main components of a quality ventilation calculation is competent technical standards of equipment and its correct location.