Ventilation - one of the most important life support systems at home.None of what comfort is not out of the question if your home resembles a thermos of their tightness.Remember, in the premises must be breathability: old air saturated with carbon dioxide must leave and come fresh.Violation of air leads to the fact that the room is stuffy, and the children do not erode the kitchen and distributed throughout the house, the bathroom can be so strong humidity, like in the steam bath.The first sign of a lack of proper ventilation are misted windows.This can not be tolerated, otherwise you can get a bunch of serious diseases, and that will suffer interior and decoration not worth mentioning: the wallpaper are peeling off, books and pieces of wood to mold and black mold all over the walls.To this nightmare did not happen, you need to think about and competently carry out installation of ventilation systems.In this article we will talk about the kinds of
- Natural ventilation Where natural ventilation is used
- How to test natural ventilation
- Installation ventilation
- natural ventilation exhaust duct
- Forced ventilation
- Where to use forced ventilation
- Installation of forced mechanical ventilation
- InstallationVentilation ducts
There are 3 types of ventilation systems:
- natural ventilation.
- Forced ventilation.
- Mixed ventilation, in which the elements of the works on the principle of natural ventilation, and some forcibly.
Let's look in more detail what constitutes a natural and mechanical ventilation, where they are used and how to install.
natural ventilation The main difference is that it works without electricity, iefully autonomous.The rooms are equipped with air holes and the system of ventilation ducts.Due to the temperature difference and the pressure at the beginning of the system, ienear the air holes, and at the end of the system - near the ventilation duct, there is a natural movement of air masses, which is sometimes referred to as "draft".
advantages of natural ventilation can be called :
- Creating natural conditions, the most suitable for human life.
- low-cost construction and maintenance.
- missing element, which can grow and breed bacteria and fungi.
- natural movement of air masses, which is dependent on weather conditions.
Among the shortcomings of natural ventilation can be identified dependence on natural weather conditions:
- For example, when a strong wind may occur reverse thrust, which will make various types of garbage from the ventilation duct.
- In hot weather, air movement almost stops, as for the normal functioning of the natural ventilation to the outside temperature was lower than in the house.
Nevertheless, it is natural ventilation without additional filters, dehumidifiers, humidifiers and other equipment is most favorable for life.There is practically no risk of allergies, frequent colds and runny nose, blood pressure instability.
Where natural ventilation is used
Natural ventilation is used in almost all of the old residential buildings and many modern.All high-rise buildings equipped by ventilation duct, which runs mostly flat or riser in the middle.Vertical vent exhaust air displays up - to the roof.But the intake vents and valves in the Soviet buildings were not provided.It was assumed that the fresh air will come into the room through the window ventilation, which were equipped with windows or with the proviso that the windows are closed, through small cracks in the windows and frames.
In fact, the movement of air through the wooden windows has advantages.The natural recovery even in the cold winter air is heated while passing through the window.
Important!Many people make the mistake of gluing on winter window with tape to avoid drafts.Thus, the natural movement of air is stopped and ventilate by opening the window is not always possible, especially if behind -30 ° C.Much better insulate windows with foam, securing it between the bars of the window frames.Passing through the foam, even the icy air is heated.As a result, and there are ventilation and the air is warm.
But progress does not stand still and now all massively change the old wooden windows on new metal and plastic, which are completely sealed profile and glazing.Given that the old-style apartments produhi not provided, the owners own their homes completely deprived of air ventilation, as through the plastic windows it does not penetrate.As a result, the misted windows, humidity and other troubles.How to deal with, we describe below.
in private homes is also used natural ventilation.We can recommend to equip ventilation in buildings of this type of "breathing" materials.For example, in these homes:
- Wooden houses.
- Straw house.
- Cob home.
- Gazoblochnye or aerated concrete monolithic home.
- brick house.
- Foam concrete house.
- Because of expanded blocks.
- cinder block.
- monolithic lightweight aggregate home.
- ceramic energy-efficient units.
All of these materials have sufficient vapor permeability to the wall can "breathe", giving the excess moisture from human activities into the atmosphere.
How to test natural ventilation
If you notice the first signs that the ventilation stopped working, it is necessary to check and determine the exact problem.Also, it does not hurt at least once in three months to check the efficiency of the system for a reason.
- Take a sheet of paper (not too thick) A4 or better to cut a strip of 20 - 25 cm long and 2 - 3 cm wide.
- paper tray to the exhaust vents in the room.Moreover, all the doors and windows must be closed.
- If paper leaned towards the vent, or even slightly stuck to it, it means that ventilation is even with doors and windows closed.Air flow through the gap under the door and the windows or the windows.
- If paper is not rejected completely, open the doors and windows.If
- with open doors and a window leaf paper still does not deviate in the direction of ventilation and does not stick, then scored the vent and must be cleaned.
- If a piece of paper with the windows closed does not deviate ventilation and open deviates, then simply do not have enough air flow.When the windows are closed, the room becomes tight, ventilation stops.If you can not afford to ventilate the room by opening the window, you need to supply valve or air holes.
Important!Please note that it is not necessary to check the performance of ventilation in a building with the help of a lit match.In general, the ventilation duct can be the accumulation of combustible gas, and your carelessness will lead to an explosion and someone has thrown out the wall.
tassel general ventilation duct can not produce on their own, you need to contact the housing office or the management company.The maximum that you can do on your own, it is with a vacuum cleaner to clean the channel on the altitude at which you can.
for proper operation of natural ventilation is necessary to supply air holes and air holes located on the outer wall, and an exhaust vent on the opposite wall, or even in another room.
air inlet can be positioned in several places:
- Under sill over a radiator or heating vent.
- In the bottom frame of the window.
- The upper window frame.
- in the wall next to the window at a height of about 1.7 - 1, 9 meters.
Many modern models of plastic windows have provided air inlet at the top or bottom of the window .As a rule, it is equipped with a filter and flap, so that his work can be monitored.
Hole in the Wall is also a good option arrangement of ventilation.But if in the region there are harsh winters, the hole will be a source of icy air from what may appear on the wall of the condensate or frost.
But air inlet under the windowsill next to a radiator is the best option.The air passing through the valve will be heated by a radiator enough not to be too cold.
Such valves can have a different shape: circular or rectangular elongated in the line.Which one you choose depends on the installation conditions, a more comfortable one and choose.
Work on installation of ventilation under the window :
- applied to the wall of the housing vent.Outlines in pencil, where there will be a hole for air intake.
- Drill a through hole diameter of 60 mm.You can use a hammer with a crown of appropriate diameter.The hole should be positioned with a slight slope toward the street, 5 degrees - 7.
- inserted into the hole the intake pipe-duct insulation.If around the pipe are still slots, carefully close up of heat-insulating material.In exceptional cases, you can blow out with foam.
- Put on the valve body so that it does not touch the pipe-duct.The planned holes for wall mounting.
- drill holes, insert the dowels into them, are putting the body and fasten it to the wall.
- Top silencer inserted into the body.It comes with a valve.
- We put on the front cover on the valve.
- exterior walls put on the pipe outer grille.
Supply ventilation valve is ready.Depending on the required volume of fresh air such valves may be several in the same room.It is also possible to use models of valves which are closed when necessary.They are equipped with a special plug.
natural ventilation exhaust duct
exhaust duct fitted in the main walls with a minimum thickness of 380 mm.On one vacation home or cottage such channels can be from 1 to 3 pieces depending on the architecture of the building.
- duct dimensions of 130x130 mm.It is necessary to equip the step masonry wall.
- inlet leading from the room to the vent must be positioned on the ceiling.
- exhaust channel on the roof of the house in the form of a tube.The height of the pipe at least 50 cm above the ridge of the roof, or broken as a result of the thrust of twists on the roof surface.
- wall thickness of the duct should be 2.5 bricks.If it is less, the channel is rapidly cooled in the cold season.This leads to the fact that the channel stop output exhaust air outside, and will prolong the cold outdoor air.
desirable to have a vent in the middle of the house.In order to air out the premises freely move toward drawing in the doors need to perform special downcomers holes or just leave a gap between the floor and the door about 2 cm.
distinctive feature of mechanical ventilation -use of electricity, which is driven by the fans.Forced ventilation can be called even a fan in the bathroom, which is powered by the bulb.
Forced ventilation can be implemented in different ways:
- -piece installation of ventilation for a single room.
- monobloc unit for ventilation of the whole cabin.
- Dialers forced ventilation consisting of air ducts throughout the building, filters, fans, heat exchangers, silencers and other elements.
Such a system does not depend on weather conditions, as the pressure difference is produced artificially by means of fans.In it there is no reverse thrust.The air is cleaned of contaminants by means of filters, and also can be heated or cooled, depending on time of year and weather conditions.
disadvantage of mechanical ventilation is not only the high cost of design, equipment, installation and operation, but also the fact that many elements of the system are breeding grounds for bacteria and fungi.Clean them every day is not possible, as the air passes through them every day, collecting the dirtiest.To deal with this deficiency can not be, though there are special ultraviolet disinfection system, it is still in the homes with forced ventilation is much more likely to get asthma, allergies and frequent acute respiratory viral infections.
Where to use forced ventilation
However, there are situations where no forced ventilation is necessary.For example, in large rooms with a large flow of people, which requires a lot of fresh air.In production halls, classrooms, gyms, railway stations and other places have to equip a powerful ventilation system to provide people with the required volume of air.
in large country houses in recent years has also become a popular use of a central ventilation with air ducts, fans and heat exchanger.For example, in a large room, opening for the inflow or air intake can be located directly over the spot where the accumulated a lot of people.For example, over the sofa in the living room or in a smoking room or around the tea table.
The houses simpler is usually enough natural ventilation, except when the structure too tightly.For example, in the homes of these materials necessarily need to make forced ventilation:
- sandwich panels.
- 3D panel.
- MDM panel.
- SOTA panel.
- frame house on the Canadian technology.
- vacuum panel.
arrangement for ventilation of the so-called energy-efficient homes need to make calculations, to create a project to equip the air ducts and ventilation in all rooms.We will not dwell on the calculation and design as well as ventilation so serious communication network that it is better left to professionals.Independently we can only perform the installation of ventilation has finished plans and drawings with dimensions, mounting location and air ducts.
Installation of forced mechanical ventilation
The easiest way to ensure a flow of fresh air - it is equipped with a fan blowing valves in the walls.Systems of supply forced ventilation is mounted so:
- in the outer wall of the hole is performed as described in the case of mounting the supply valve of natural ventilation.The only difference is that the opening can be in any convenient location.For example, next to the window at a height of 1.7 - 1.9 m.
- tube is inserted inside the hole-duct.
- inside the pipe is inserted into the fan.
- outside the tube is closed with fan grille.