Electricity - this is one of the most important sources of power for private homes.Electricity helps in cooking, space heating, pumping water into it, and a simple light.It is able to completely replace the gas supply and central water.Without electricity modern house is not considered a well-maintained and functional.High-voltage lines reach even the most remote villages and settlements, providing them with electricity.But it was still a place where communication is not paved, but their installation will cost a decent amount.In this situation, help out alternative sources of energy.They are environmentally friendly, completely autonomous and financially profitable.Owner own source of electrical energy does not depend on planned repairs, breakdowns and rolling blackouts that left entire villages without electricity.The most common, and not quite the usual alternative energy sources discussed in detail below.
- use of solar energy
- use of wind power
- geothermal energy
- Biomass energy
- miniature hydroelectric
first and most popular source of energy at home, which is often found inprivate homes - generators.By type of fuel used, they are divided into diesel, petrol and gas.
Diesel generators have many advantages, including efficiency, reliability and low risk of fire.With regular daily use of a diesel generator is much more profitable models with the consumption of gas or gasoline.Fuel consumption of diesel-powered equipment is not great, the price of fuel is not high, it does not require costly repairs and monetary investments.Disadvantages of diesel generators - a large amount of gases emitted during operation, the noise and the high price of the unit itself.The price of equipment with a capacity of 5 kW on average $ 850.
gasoline generator - this unit is ideal as a backup power source or seasonal.Generators on this type of fuel are small, emit little noise during operation, the unit itself has a lower price than the diesel equivalent.The average price of gasoline generator 5 kW is $ 500.The disadvantages of using gasoline power generator - the noise level, though low, but it is, while the large amount of carbon dioxide because the device must be placed in separate rooms with good sound insulation.
gas power generators have proved themselves well on all sides.They work like from natural gas and from the fuel in the cylinders of liquefied.The noise level from the lowest of these devices, the service life is very high.The average price for a 5 kW unit is $ 600.
use of solar energy
Another alternative source of electrical energy - the sun.They use it not only to generate electricity, but also to provide auxiliary heating.To get electricity from the sun solar panels installed various sizes that are equipped with the battery and inverter.Among the advantages of the use of sources of electricity by solar energy appears:
- ability renewed.
- totally silent in operation.
- safe for human health and the environment, as used in this technology devices do not emit any substances.
- Easy to install with self installation.
All these qualities make the energy of the sun among the most popular.But there is a method of generating electricity and disadvantages:
- For homes with high electricity consumption will require the installation of equipment a large area, which will occupy a lot of space on the local area.Area station should be at least 10 m2.That is the type of energy available for the owners of small plots of land.
- second drawback - the dependence of the daily and seasonal changes in solar radiation.
- third - at work these units do not emit harmful substances, but for the manufacture of solar cells and solar systems that make up a solar cell, highly toxic substances are used, which are difficult to dispose of.
Ready station has a price from 3500 to 7000 $.A more affordable way to produce energy from the sun - collectors for water heating.This device picks up heat from the sun, even in those days, when the star is hidden behind clouds.Can only be used for heating water, electricity does not produce.One collector satisfies the daily requirement of hot water for a family of three.Price ranges from $ 1,000 to 4,000.The disadvantage of this type of equipment have only one inherent and solar cells - will not function in areas with low solar activity and at night.
use of wind power
energy-conversion air flow into electricity and is not related to the category of fiction and applied universally.They operate on the principle of wind turbines, which convert kinetic energy of wind into mechanical energy from the rotation of the turbine.This energy is collected and converted by the inverter into alternating current.The minimum wind speed at which the electricity generated from the flywheel - 2 m / s.The optimal wind speed - 8 m / s.Design type wind power generators are divided into a model with a horizontal and a vertical rotor.
The horizontal design of the generator has a high efficiency, the installation uses a small amount of materials.Disadvantages - need for the installation of high mast, the generator has a complex mechanical parts in the service is not convenient.Vertical features a wider range of wind speeds at which they operate.But at the same vertical wind generators are not economical since they require the use of more equipment and materials.
use of wind turbines is limited to performance of the wind in the context of each season.If the off-season, with increased activity of the air, the station will be very effective, in the days of calm will not produce electricity.To smooth out these differences and nurture home electric current smoothly, wind turbines equipped with a storage battery.This measure helps to store energy in windy weather and use it during periods of calm.
alternative installation Battery station performs the conversion of wind energy into heat.They use it for heating and hot water supply.In this arrangement, the battery is replaced vodonakopitelnym tank.Using wind power plant in such a way to reduce its overall cost by 25%.The cost of wind power plant with a battery averages 10 000 $, without battery - $ 1000-2000.
Among the not very pleasant nuances of using wind power plant including the need for improvement of the foundation for the equipment.It strengthens carefully that during strong winds mast with windmill vomited out of the land.Second nuance - the possibility of icing of blades in the winter, it reduces the efficiency of the station.During operation, this equipment forms a noise and vibration, because it is mounted away from residential buildings.
use of geothermal energy
Geothermal energy - it is a new source of energy for a private home.In this case, using the heat that is produced in the bowels of the planet.The core of the Earth has a high temperature, which comes to the surface in volcanic areas, sources of water and steam, and is also found in the deeper layers of the planet.Geothermal heat is used as the energy source of power and heat.
The principle of geothermal energy source in a private home is quite simple - drilled hole into which the heat pump.Installation swings from deep layers hot water while cooling it generates energy, which is then converted to electricity.When using this setting consumes electricity, but each spent kW it produces 6.5 kW power.The average installation cost for the house of 150 m2 is 30 000 $.Benefits of using - an inexhaustible source of energy that does not depend on the season, time of day and weather conditions.
disadvantages of using the Earth's energy - thermal water often highly mineralized and contain toxic impurities, because it can not be sent to ordinary sewage.The waste water is recycled into the deeper horizon, from which it was pumped.Some scientists believe that this type of energy leads to an increase in seismic activity in the crust.
on biofuels already heard many.Around this type of hot dispute flared up, and the mass of conflicting reviews.As a fuel for vehicles, it has an attractive price, but this is not fully clear the impact on the motor and its power.But boitoplivo used not only as a fuel for vehicles, but also as a source of electric current.According to replace the fuel gas, gasoline and diesel when refueling equipment to generate electricity.
Biofuels are produced by processing various plants.For the production of biological diesel used fats from seeds of oil crops, and gasoline produced by fermentation of corn, sugar cane, beets and other plants.The optimal source of biological energy algae recognized as unpretentious, easily converted into boimassu with similar oil oily properties.
This technology also allows to obtain biogas, which is captured in the fermentation of organic waste and animal food industry.In this case, methane was prepared.When capturing landfill gas obtained cellulosic ethanol.1 ton of useless garbage produces up to 500 m3 of useful gas.
With regard to domestic use of biofuels to generate electricity, it is for this purpose acquired individual biogas plant.Such a device produces natural gas from waste.Standard installation IBGU 1 day yields from 3 to 12 m3 gas, which is then used for heating houses, dressings of various equipment including the gas generator of electricity.The cost of a biogas plant an average of $ 9000.
Another type of alternative energy, which has been successfully applied in private homes - individual HPP.In assembling this type of electricity generator it is one of the most complex, but its efficiency is much higher than the wind and solar sources.Hydroelectric dams and constructed damless second option is the most simple and accessible.Such plants are also called flow-through stations.On the device, they are divided on the station with the wheel, garland, Darrieus rotor and propeller.
- station with water wheel has a central circular part of the blades which is mounted perpendicular to the water surface.When moving the water pressure on the blade and turning the wheel.The principle of operation is the same as in the wind station, but also serves as a source of water.More complex designs of wheel water power plants - the wheel-the turbine with special blades for jet of water.
- station with a garland - a cable on which the rotors are rigidly fixed.The cable is mounted on the opposite banks of the water flow, the rotors are submerged in water.Moving water spins the rotors, and they pass this motion cable.
- station with Darrieus rotor - similar to the previous design, but the rotor is positioned vertically and rotated by various indicators of pressures in the blades.This index is created due to the complex shape of the surface.
- station propeller - Underwater installation of a vertical rotor.Outwardly, this setting is similar to the windmill, with small blades.
Among the species considered to be HPP most awkward daisy installation.It has low productivity, the construction itself is a danger to the people around them, assembling the station requires the consumption of large amounts of materials.Darrieus rotor is more convenient, because the axis is vertical and its installation is possible over the water.But to mount such a station is quite difficult and the rotor at startup you need to unwind.The best option for making your own hands - the station with a propeller or wheel.The average cost of a 6 kW station is 8 000-10 000.