Laminate - a floor covering, produced on the basis of HDF (wood fiber material with a higher density - 0.8-1.1 t / m3).The product has a layered structure, the front side is usually decorated with a protective film which is resistant to various adverse influences.Due to its aesthetic appearance and low price, he took the leading position among all the floor coverings in private houses, apartments and offices.This article will talk about how to properly align the floor before laying laminate.
- Details laminate
- Types grounds for laying laminate
- Leveling concrete floor under the laminate
- Alignment wooden sub-floor under the laminate
- Alignment subfloors of chipboard under the laminate
- Preparations other bases under laminate
- How to lay a laminate substrate
- Proper care laminate
- Contemporary laminate board consists of four main layers, which are connected by a special very durable adhesive. lower layer necessary for preventing the deformation webs, it also provides particular article rigidity and protection from moisture.It is made of waterproof paper, and may further comprise a sound insulation substrate.
- Next is carrying or base layer , vypalenny Fiberboard.It has the considerable weight of the whole structure, thermal insulation and sound-absorbing performs functions.Here is locking system (on the one hand a recess for the groove and on the other side of the comb is made).In all high-quality laminate side faces soaked vlagoottalkivayuschey compositions.
- main layer determining product design is decorative paper , impregnated with a special composition.On its surface applied variety image, often it is an imitation of wood or stone textures, but there may be many others, including exotic texture.
- top paper layer is applied acrylic or melamine resins adding mineral particles, often corundum powder.These materials are designed to provide protection against mechanical damage and rapid wear, prolonging the life of the laminate board.The thicker and stronger upper layer, the higher the wear resistance grade product.Contemporary laminate can imitate almost completely different texture of natural materials.Including due to the application of the upper layer of all kinds of decorative irregularities, repeating texture of wood or stone.
The production of some manufacturers between the main layer and the decorative paper can be placed film, the main purpose of which is to improve the water resistance of the product.
- There are several major classes laminate , differ in their purpose, the higher the grade, the greater strength has goods.For example, articles having coded class 31 and 32, are considered household products, that is used in private homes and apartments, and the labeled products of class 33 and 34 are most frequently used in public institutions, offices, sports as a coating and so on.
- Besides class product labeling exists, which indicates the degree of wear of the upper layer - AC1-AC5 (the higher the number, Ty durable material), so when choosing a laminate should pay attention to both figures.The average commercial laminate (Class 33 AS3-4) will serve from 3 to 6 years in public institutions, and 10-15 years at home.The most persistent class 34 AC-5 will serve under heavy load from 7 to 15 years, and in apartments and houses can lie without changing its properties, and up to 30 years.
- main feature and advantage of the laminated board is that this flooring does not require adhesives.The plates are interconnected and reliable locking system in assembled form a single "monolithic" structure.
purchasing laminate as a floor covering, you must be prepared to ensure that the ground under the material would have to prepare very carefully.
Types grounds for laying laminate
- Stack laminate on a level, dry, clean and solid foundation.The main drawback of all wood products is that they are afraid of moisture.Therefore preparing rough floor under the laminate board, you need to take care of additional protection products.Experts recommend obscure the base vapor or waterproof film (density of 200 microns).
- On top of the film tend to fit a special substrate of expanded polystyrene, cork or foam polyethylene thickness of 2 mm to 1 cm. This measure will help to avoid small differences in height (up to 2 mm per 1 m2) andIt prevents the possibility of the appearance of unpleasant sounds (squeaks, crunches).The film and the substrate will also serve as an additional noise and heat insulation.
- at differences in height greater than 3 mm, the base will have to prepare a special way, since the laminate refers to those coatings that eventually repeat all the irregularities.If the subfloor has large holes, cracks or bumps, then the probability of formation of the plates bends up to the failure of the tool joint.
- As for cleanliness subfloors, it is also an important point, as any grain, got under the laminate, will publish a crunch, and may also cause damage to the floor covering.It is therefore essential before beginning installation products carefully sweep or vacuum the base of all the garbage.
most common types of foundation are considered:
- concrete floors, including sand-cement screed and slab;
- old wooden floor in good condition;
- false floor chipboard;
- other bases such as linoleum.
about each sub-floor should be discussed separately, as different reason to believe their own ways leveling the floor under the laminate.
Leveling concrete floor under the laminate
to concrete base can be attributed all kinds of cement floors, since they will have identical properties and features, and must comply with the same requirements.This is the most popular base for laying laminate, but as a rule, the concrete surface (a mixture of cement, gravel and sand) or concrete slabs are often not perfectly smooth, and therefore have to align them mandatory.
most common varieties of such defects :
- deep or small cracks;
- dents and chips;
- flaking and crumbling;
- plane drops more than 3 mm (manufacturer's instructions may be laying the laminate to the substrate with a vertical drop of up to 2 mm);
- large slope.
All these problems require solutions.And for this purpose it can be used rough rovnitel distributed over the entire area or only the defect.The main components of such mixtures acts cement and sand.The prepared solution can be applied as a screed beacons unsupported or as a floating screed.
- In order to start leveling the floor, a concrete base should be cleaned of dust and debris.
- also, if necessary, removed without any residue previous flooring.Available oily, colorful or bitumen stains are cleaned with solvents.Large cracks are filled separately prepared solution, if there are nodules great height, then they will have to bring down the hammer.
- Treated concrete surfaces should be primed with a special compound that prevents water absorption of the material.Along the perimeter of the walls can be glued damping tape.If necessary, the substrate is placed on the base.In terms of the beacons are exposed and fixed sculpting solution.Then, between the beacon profiles leveling compound is poured and leveled with a rule.The guide can be removed after a light mortar setting or leave, but then before you install them to follow the process with special protective composition.
- Many rough rovniteli do almost perfectly flat and smooth floor, and it is already possible to install laminate.If the flatness is still not satisfied, then dried by sand-cement screed primed and filled with self-leveling solutions, which include cement and various plasticizers.
- to complete drying screed sometimes have to wait 14 to 28 days.Self-leveling compounds to dry slightly faster on average from 3 to 14 days, but there are some species that are ready in a few hours.This time, absolutely necessary to sustain otherwise laid laminate very quickly come into disrepair, because base was released moisture.This time should be taken into account, undertaking repairs.
- When the surface of the sub-floor there are local variations, or small cracks, then seal them enough to use mixtures of a dot.That is a crack or hole thoroughly cleaned to avoid dust and oily stains, then pour self-leveling compounds, which is smoothed in the same level with the rest of the floor with the help of rules.After the required drying time embedded areas thoroughly polished and the entire floor is covered with primer.
- Priming on a cement-sand base will help to avoid crumbling the upper layer, that is, the appearance of sand, which is under the laminate very unpleasant squeaks and rustles, in addition, the substrate laid on the sand, quickly rub off and will become worthless.The primer is best to choose the composition in addition to anti-bacterial components.
- Gulf floor self-leveling compounds, it is imperative to observe the manufacturer's instructions.In order that the surface is perfectly flat and smooth applied special needle roller, it removes the air bubbles from the solution.If the bubbles remain after drying and look like small pimples, they can simply be sanded sandpaper and then vacuum coating, removing the resulting dust.
Leveling the floor under the laminate video
Alignment wooden sub-floor under the laminate
problem of wooden floor - that's their creaking.If such floor lay a laminate, then a new coating will start to issue sounds unpleasant to the ear.In order to eliminate squeaks can use several options:
- glue board adhesive composition for wood;
- zapenit problem areas with foam;
- fluff sealant;
- draw boards to the joists with screws or bolts.
- Each specific method is chosen based on their situation.Scaffold should not bend but must be strong and rigid.The reason wobbly planks can be used by an insufficient number of lag or small thickness of the wooden floor.Correct the situation will help to remove the coating and the addition of a lag, or laying a thick board.
- If subfloor has small bumps, it is easily eliminated by laying the substrate or Scratching (alignment surface using scraping Scraping machines or hand tsiklevatelya).
- If irregularities are more significant, then get rid of them will have to board a plane podstragivat.Before starting the procedure of equalization of wooden timbers, all the nails you need to go a little further into the boards (using a tool such as dobojnik).The cracks can be repaired simple acrylic sealer.
- rotten planks used as a reason not to be in any case, a floor immediately dismantled.If a small amount of spoiled the floor, it can be replaced with new boards.Please note that laying laminate on a wooden base is perpendicular arrangement of the boards.
Alignment subfloors of chipboard under the laminate
When existing base is not suitable for any reason, the experts advise to lay laminate mounted raised floors, that is, design, mounted on the joists.
- on the ground, in which can be concrete or wood floor, installed a special rack and have them using lag bolts are fastened.Align the base is in a single plane can be using a spirit level and adjusting the bolts, as well as by lining special mounting wedges.
- logs stacked on top of the plywood sheets with a thickness of 1.5 cm or more.They must be secured very tightly using screws to during the operation did not happen shifts.
- is best plates laid in two layers with overlapping joints or just lay out the material with offset joints.At the same time should not be too tightly stacked chipboard each other, as may occur during operation small size sheets and the change in the best case, the floor begins to squeak and at worst will experience buckling of the laminate.
Leveling the floor with the help of the raised floor has its advantages and disadvantages.For example, the advantages include the fact that it is a dry method in which a minimum amount of dirt, as well as the fact that no additional time is required for drying the floor and the laminate is relatively warm material.The main disadvantage of a base - raising the level of the floor for a few centimeters, and it is particularly acute in areas with low ceilings.
Preparations other bases under laminate
- Virtually the only material which can be easily laid laminate flooring is linoleum . This product has high sound absorption and thermal insulation properties.It is soft, but at the same time sufficiently strong and robust.Therefore, if the room has a floor laid linoleum, then on top of it can be safely stacked laminate, of course in the absence of differences in height of more than 2 mm.
- Draft coverage is necessary to paste over the entire area, so that during the operation it does not collect or wrinkled.As a rule, linoleum, this procedure is not carried out, so you should raise all the coverage and fluff material is special adhesive.
- Cooking linoleum somehow not particularly want to, that is enough of it to clean and dry, and then you can start laying a laminate substrate, which, among other things, be able to align and smaller existing defects.If linoleum began to crumble and flake, it is best to stop using it.
- Such bases as the carpet poorly suited for the installation of the laminate.If the flooring is made of a soft fibrous material, they are best to dismantle, since, firstly, laminated board will sag on this basis, that will eventually lead to damage to the locking system, and, secondly, in the pile will accumulate grimedust, bacteria and other microorganisms from which escape is impossible.