Construction of stairs to the street requires special attention and a preliminary calculation.A well-designed staircase will not only device that provides vertical communication, but also decorate the outer exterior.On how to build a stairway street with their hands look at later.
- advantages and functional features of the street stairways
- main types of outdoor stairs
- outdoor staircase to the second floor - features and design Production
- outdoor stairs made of wood with their hands
- recommendations on the construction of metal stairs street
- StreetStairs of reinforced concrete - Construction instructions
advantages and functional features of the street stairways
One of the most important elements of both internal and external part of the house is a staircase.This is not only a useful object, but also an expression of the tastes and preferences of the owner.
Consider the main features outdoor stairs:
1. The main purpose of the ladder - the connection of two sections, one of which is higher than the other.
2. Another feature - a decorative ladder, can decorate the yard and the street to attract the attention of visitors.
3. Street staircase is able to connect the street to the second floor, attic, attic, roof, porch or basement.
Choice of material, color, type of finish the stairs is the main advantage of it.At the same time, for the construction of stairs is enough to get acquainted with the instructions for its manufacture, the process is quite feasible, if you study all the recommendations.
Another advantage is the ability to staircase buy or order professionals.The cost of the stairs for the street depends on the type, length, and other decorative elements, such as handrails.
Stairs street photo:
Requirements outdoor stairs:
- easy repair,
- simple operation,
- good appearance.
main types of outdoor stairs
Depending on the purpose of the stairs are divided into:
External metal ladders are portable and stationary, with or without handrails.
Street stairs, depending on their functions are:
- Street loft,
- Street, second floor,
- staircase in a house on the street,
- street, basement,
- street porchetc.
In most cases, the construction of the outer stairs, helps save a considerable area of space that would be occupied by a staircase in the room.
Depending on the type of material used during the construction of the ladder, they are:
Metal ladder is welded or cast design team.It happens:
- the presence of platforms,
- without pads.
basic material production - iron and steel.
street Metal ladders are divided into:
- device technical purpose - to help evacuate people during emergencies;
- ladder screw type that connect the street to the second floor and attic;
- design with wrought-iron stair railings made of brass.
Depending on the form of metal ladders are:
Such ladder is not capricious in operation, but before installation should be carried out with the help of anti-corrosion treatment solution.
to make steps to apply anti-slip sheet metal.
Wooden stairs are used in country houses or cottages.Also, they are excellent facilities for entering from the street to the attic.
Stone stairs are:
- of hard sandstone.
They are used in large backyards, gardens, stone house or structure.Stone stairs - one of the most expensive outdoor stairs.
most popular and reliable are the concrete stairs.For their construction requires only concrete or concrete complete with ceramic brick.
main advantage of concrete stairs is:
- low cost,
- ease of maintenance,
- reliability and durability,
- long life,
- moisture resistance,
- resistance to mechanical damage,
- a wide variety of types of post-finishing.
to finish a street stairs, ceramic tiles can be used, which has the following advantages:
- resistant to changes in temperature and moisture,
- does not react with the salts that handles sills and staircases during the ice.
outdoor staircase to the second floor - features and design
staircase to the second floor, located on the street saves space inside the house and has an attractive appearance.
there are many options such stairs constructions.For lovers of natural materials it is - wood and stone, to get a solid foundation, which will continue to construct a tiled concrete stairs.But above all, the stairs leading from the street to the second floor - must be safe.It should have a rough surface that does not allow slip during the frost, and also robust railing to help on her feet.
For additional security might wrapping the edges of stairs fractional material.some owners make a ladder heated, so in winter it freezes.
High Security are distinguished exterior stairs with a combination of wood and metal.Marches have wooden stairs, which are virtually ledeneyut and railing made of metal, and give the structure strength.If the home has small children, it is advisable for them to make a low railing.
Another requirement to the stairs leading to the second floor is its stability.It must be strong and not be influenced by the wind and weather conditions.To obtain such a structure is required to make such actions:
- build the foundation for the ladder;
- have two options of its construction: a holistic and autonomous in relation to the house;
- consider the materials used in the construction of the house;
- do not use a metal staircase in a wooden house, as it is heavy with the design;
- provide secure attachment to the construction of the house.
following requirement - is the protection of a flight of stairs and platforms, if available from the external environment.To staircase has served for many years should take care to protect it.If you have to install a wooden ladder, it should be treated with a special water-resistant and fireproof impregnation character.These solutions do not prevent the formation of mold, mildew, protect the wood from moisture and even fire.
If there is a metal ladder, it must be treated with anti-corrosive mixture which will protect it from wear and from rust.
Choice ladder depends on the total exterior and architectural structure on which it is installed.For expensive cottage suitable metal or wrought stone staircase.If you intend to install the ladder in a simpler building, it must be guided by the overall design of the building.
Always follow harmony materials.Good looks combination of metal and wood, stone and metal.
Manufacture of wood stairs street with their hands
Before starting production of a ladder is necessary to determine its size.To do this, measure its overall height.Then this number is divisible by step size, the most convenient stage is 16 to 22 cm. Thus, a total number of stages.Also, constructing a ladder to go to the porch or in the loft.
next stage - the total length of the ladder.The average value of the depth of the tread is 25 cm. This number is multiplied by the value of the number of stages and get the length of the ladder.
To make a ladder with their hands from a tree you need to carefully approach the selection of the starting material.Wooden parts should have optimum moisture content is too over-dried material is not suitable.They should not be present deformation, cracks or any spots.
to manufacture outdoor steps required board thickness not less than thirty nor more than sixty millimeters in a substep select the board thickness of 2.5 cm. The stringers will need the presence of a bar thickness of 6 cm, with a section of 14h30 cm.
with pencil and apply a roulettemarkup on kosour, according to calculations made previously.
When constructing a stair width of 150 cm, you must add a third kosour, which will be located in the middle.This ladder does not require a substep, so it is very easy to install.Mounting the steps to the stringers is made by means of screws.To give added strength shkantami use and construction adhesive.
for such ladders are ideal railing made of wood.More simple is the installation of aluminum railings.They are not finicky care and have a long service life.
After completion of the assembly of the stairs need to handle it with stain or varnish.
recommendations on the construction of metal stairs street
- in the case of construction of street stairs, which is a fire-proof, installation of such a product is made from the inside of the building so as not to spoil the appearance of the facade;
- to the staircase was stable and rigid it is recommended to install it on the base of the foundation;
- size of a staircase are the same as in the interior: the depth level of 25-40 cm, height 12-20 cm stage, but it must be one or two percent slope stage that during the rain water easily flowed from it;
- value of step width of about one meter.
Advantages of fabricating a metal ladder:
- possibility of producing their own hands,
- does not require additional finishing,
- this staircase longevity and durability,
- easy care and cleaning.
Before you proceed directly to the process of producing a metal ladder, you should calculate the number of steps and to develop a preliminary draft.
Prepare materials for the work, as well as welding machine.An excellent option for the construction of the ladder are the reinforcing rods.They will help to avoid the accumulation of snow on the surface of the stairs, and protection from ice.
During operation, a ladder should be periodically treated with a solution to prevent the appearance of corrosion.
basis of the stairs, which will be available on channel iron rods is a metal coating.
Because of the reinforcement bars do not look very aesthetically pleasing, the variant replacement or perforated relief steps, which also will save from slipping.Do not use materials smooth as possible the risk of injury in the winter season.
monitor the quality of welds, all connections must be robust and reliable.The railing can be used as a wood or plastic handrail.As the gaps between the stair railing and using forged products.
Street staircase of concrete - instruction for construction
Stairs of reinforced concrete - the best option for those who wish to obtain a strong, durable and inexpensive ladder.
1. The first and preparatory stage involves the construction of a ladder holding a preliminary calculation and markup.First of all, define the level of lifting the ladder is optimal angle of 25 to 40 degrees.The higher the level of the staircase, the harder for it to rise, but the expense of the material in this case is reduced.After that, we should define the height and tread degrees.The optimum height of the steps up to 20 cm and length 30 cm. Now we define a number of steps, it is necessary to measure the length of the stairs and divide it by the height of the steps.The optimum width of the staircase from 80 to 110 cm.
2. Now move to the second phase - the assembly of the formwork.This will require the presence of an edging board, lumber and plywood sizes are selected depending on the height and load the ladder.
3. To connect all parts of the casing, use wood screws.This formwork easily disassembled and can withstand heavy loads.To use the jigsaw to cut the material.
4. The third stage - concreting outdoor staircase.This process starts from the bottom and one reception is performed.To avoid leakage of concrete add to the solution chippings.Do not skimp on the concrete, it is better to buy cement grade 15 and above.A prerequisite is a proper seal pouring concrete.To this end, it is desirable to use a manual vibrator that will deliver high quality mixture of excess air.While working with a vibrator, do not touch the reinforcing components.
To prepare the solution should be taken:
- one kilogram of cement,
- two kilograms of sand,
- four kilograms of rubble,
- 600 ml of water,
- 10 ml plasticizer.
For the construction of monolithic staircase is desirable to prepare a solution using the mixer to improve concrete strength.
Adding components takes place on such a scheme:
- adding gravel,
- sand and cement,
- minute addition of water.
Cover stairs with a film of polyethylene and wait for three weeks.Then remove the formwork and proceed to finish the street monolithic stairs.