When constructing a stairway one of the most important and serious step determines the quality of the installation is the marches.The number and type of installation depends on the type of ladder.On the features and requirements for the installation of staircases consider further.
- flight of stairs stairway calculation: features of the device
- Installation landing
- Installation staircases precast
flight of stairs stairway is of several types:
The easiest option is the improvement odnomarshevoy stairs, they are characteristic of low-rise buildings.If the number of degrees in the ladder does not reach the level of sixteen pieces, then it is urgent construction odnomarshevoy stairs.
otherwise required to equip the structure consisting of several marches.Its construction will cost more and more complicated.Mnogomarshevye ladder consists of
current construction standards that apply to the construction of a stairway.Marsh called the building structure, which is located in a straight line or a curved oblique way.The minimum number of steps in the regeneration of a stairway is three, and the maximum - sixteen.If steps longer, it requires the construction of a horizontal platform.
central line dividing the flight line called Sunrise, its location should be a place away from the tread at least thirty centimeters.Therefore, the value of the minimum width of the stairway is sixty centimeters.On this ladder is convenient to move only one person.Marsh require mandatory fence using handrails are on both sides of the stairs.
entryway of the building is called the horizontal part of which is located between the march.When calculating its size or shape should be based on average stride length of an average person.
offer acquainted with the basic requirements to the arrangement of the landing:
- width platforms and stairs should be the same;
- its length protrudes from the length of a flight of stairs;
- a parallel arrangement of propulsion elements to each other, shall have a rectangular or rounded shape, while the perpendicular - its form is in the form of a square.
most common place setting stairway is a multi-storey building.It is in the regeneration of a stairway in these places often used by construction made of concrete or reinforced concrete.To perform the entire spectrum of these works requires the intervention of specialized equipment.
before installing the flight of stairs is required to check its high quality.This is done in two ways:
by visual inspection detected debris, dirt, cracks, frost - all this eliminates cleaning.With the help of the measuring method of checking compliance with the shape and size of a flight of stairs geometrically preset parameters.
In the process of the installation of staircases is carefully monitored every step of the work, checked all the details of the stairs, complete installation and finishing work welding character.
According to the requirements, laid out in a specific document exists the limit values of deviations when installing staircases:
- the horizontal arrangement of stages - 0.2 cm;
- the horizontal arrangement pads - 0.5 cm;
- vertical mounting of components that provide fencing - 0.3 cm;
- discrepancy in the top row of the roof - 0.5 cm;
- discrepancy between the depth of the horizontal bearing sections values - 0.5 mm.
Abnormalities in proportion to the size of the ladder parts constitute more than 0.3 cm - with a thickness of up to 0.5 cm - length.The presence of cracks, sagging, rust stains, grease accumulations on the details of the stairs is unacceptable.
Construction begins ladders produced after bays filled using concrete slabs.Fixation of the flight of stairs by means of cement mortar thickness not exceeding three centimeters.The solution should be of high quality and freshly prepared.
calculation stairway: features of
staircases size calculation shall be based on the load on the bearing structures, which serve the console.Since the ladder almost daily to dynamic load, stiffness elements carrying the appointment must be of high quality.The value of deflection should not exceed four part one span.To calculate the load on the console ladder should be its own weight of the structure to add to the load time for a residential building is the value of three hundred kilograms per square meter.
Note that the person to lift the ladder uses several times more energy than when you walk on the horizontal line.Experts say that for the correct calculation comfortable and, most importantly, safe ladder requires double the height of the riser to add to it the width of the stage, this value shows the average human step.Considering the length of the step tread, it is 60-64 cm. Therefore, to determine the tread and rise, use this formula: 2 * A + B = 60-64sm.
In addition, there is an alternative version of the above formula: A + B = 460, in which A is designated as the height of the tread, and B - its width.
When calculating the width of the tread should proceed from the fact that the foot should rest on it completely, so it must be a minimum of 20 cm and a maximum of - 32 cm. The most optimal variant is the height substep 15 cm, width 30 cm steps. If the width of the tread is quite large, when the rise the ladder, people will always get off, otherwise, with a minimum width of the tread descending the stairs will be steep, resulting in personal injury, use it for other purposes.
stairway scheme is based on the fact that the calculation of the angle of a stairway should take into account the factor that the best option is a value from 24 to 38 degrees.From the angle of the ladder depends on the space in the premises it occupies.If you have the inclination angle, which is less than twenty-four degrees, it is recommended to install a ramp - flat area for the descent.If the angle of inclination of more than forty-five degrees, the folding ladder constructed or auxiliary.
most difficult process in the regeneration of the stairs with a steep angle to provide a safe descent.If the inclination angle ladder more than forty-five degrees, the safety trigger on her back is performed only by a person.
When calculating the number of steps should be taken into account factors such as the height and angle of the floor.In determining the precise location of the stairs and the room height is possible to define your own version of the number of stages.This will require the drawing to draw a flight of stairs, which is lined by millimeter staircase and its main components.Draw a flight of stairs made in relation to the height of a flight of stairs.
The height is the distance between the floor elevations finishing floors on the first and second floors.For example, when finishing the floor of the first floor laminates, and the second - tile, you should consider all the layers of finish, including concrete floor.The standard size of one floor height of 280 cm, sometimes 300, 270 or 330 cm. In this case, the ceiling height in the room is equal to 240 cm. At such an altitude is possible to install stairs, which correspond to the level of safety standards.If you have a different height of the flight of stairs, the height of the steps should be calculated very carefully, while taking into account the size of the riser.If there are some errors in the calculations, it is best to distribute them between the first stage and the size of the remaining stages of the same leave.
At arrangement of different height levels, the staircase becomes traumatic.If you have a non-standard height of a flight of stairs is required to take care of lowering the level of the sub-floor and first floor.To equalize the difference between the floor in the house and the landing should be the level of the finished floor to make the landing below.In this case, the threshold will be omitted and the floor will be equipped by an inclined manner.
During the construction of multi-storey buildings among the main components that provide a vertical connection between the floors, are the staircases.Their installation - quite a time-consuming process that requires special care and attention.
There are three options for the location of the march:
- oblique way.
order to easily remove the moisture from the stairs, the lower edge of the flight of stairs to be higher than the first.
In addition, there are several forms of staircases, which are:
- curved shape.
installation work on the arrangement of the flight of stairs begin with the reinforcement surface, this process will help to protect the ladder from the effects of large loads.Since March ladder is influenced by many factors: the gravity of their own weight, people and things that are moved by it, reinforcement is a must process.Reinforcement odnomarshevoy stairs made in its lower part, and half-pace designs require reinforcement from both above and below, the upper reinforced portion smoothly moves from the landing onto the surface steps.Because exposure to high loads of stairs is required to strengthen them in the concrete wall.
The installation of staircases begins after performed tier masonry.first flight and a playground set in the presence of internal masonry walls and masonry The following exercise has by floor.
main stages of work on the installation of the landing:
- performance of works about the layout location of the site;
- application of concrete on the surface of the thrust areas;
- immediate installation site.
To check the horizontal position of the landing used building level.To check the interval between sites, requires the production of a special wooden template to and carried out verification.Spans for floor decks are installed in the same manner as the pad.Mounting stairway starts with its first installation portion to the lower and then the upper.Scrap helps eliminate minor bugs that arise during installation.
Installation staircases precast
Since the production of staircases with their own hands - a procedure almost impossible, in the absence of special tools and skills to work with him, it is better to resort to buying a modular design.In this case, consider the case of a staircase made of reinforced concrete.
This type of stair marches is absolutely fireproof and installed in the stairwells.Their installation is made with the help of cranes, as people raise such gravity - impossible.
most common embodiment of the flight of stairs is its bias one to two such staircases are the basis of virtually any multi-storey building.At the same time, there are prefabricated with a taper of one to one and a half, they are relevant for cottages or private homes.
There are several types of marches:
- flat shape, on which no frieze stage, but there is ribbed;
- ribbed type with the presence of one or two poluploschadok.
Their main difference lies in the fact that the first option is used as a reinforcement of reinforced flat tube and the second - reinforced beam or kosour.
Each flight of stairs assumes individual manufacturing its own entryway.There are two types of execution platforms and stairways:
- left hand;
- right hand.
Before starting construction, should be carefully calculate the flight of stairs and platforms.Since their installation is made in accordance with the working drawings of the project, which clearly indicated the level of high-rise character size and horizontal mounting clearances.
Stairs, in this case, are set in the process of building walls.Before the start of installation work required to make check flight of stairs and landings with a tape.Further there is a production of a wooden pattern that is identical to the natural one embodiment, it copies the ladder support components.
Next on the wall marks the spot installation site, the solution is applied and takes its installation.The next process - checking flatness fixed platforms.If the site is not installed correctly, it is used for its correction or doctored scrap using a crane.
At discrepancy site in advance to the calculations completed installation of a flight of stairs, or failure of its location in a curved position.To reconcile the accuracy of the installation site, it is recommended to use a template from the tree.
supply staircases by using a crane to lift in the process of doing it a bit slanted.If the mounting tabs on the march are not available, then use the forks.
Before installing staircases bed arranged on the basis of the cement-sand mixture.It is located in the ground reference purposes, the application takes place manually, with a trowel.
to install stairway requires at least three people, one of which is on the lower floor and the other on the top.Third - acts as a driver.As the movement of a flight of stairs, it takes the first person who is on top.In the 35-40 cm before planting should march firmly pressed against the wall and sent to the stairwell.First the lower part of the march, and then the top.With scrap corrected minor bugs and disengagement occurs march from the tap.Seams between marches and landings are covered monolithic solution.When installing the march in the opposite position, first the top and then the bottom - he slips from the site.
When working in low-rise buildings in the form of cottages, obustraivanie concrete stairs takes place in the open stairwells.To save space, the variant lack the entryway.In that case, go back to the stairs and go directly to the concrete floor.The flight of stairs based on the surface of the carrier jumper or reinforced concrete beam.In no case shall a bearing slab to the surface plates.The height of the jumper settings depends on the total thickness of the floor covering further installed.
Standard appearance marches implies a smooth concrete steps to further trim using marble or granite treads.They are going to complete the staircase.This material trim and landings.Note that tread into account when calculating the height of the finished floor.The organization of the entrance to the building through the stairwell, the first intermediate ground require a ground organization of the march, numbering from three to six stages.In such cases, using structures consisting of stacked concrete steps of implementation.