prevent damage caused by meltwater and heavy rainfall, possible through arrangement of surface drainage.This system is used to collect and drain excess rainfall, which are often heat a little the adjacent lot, and with it the fruit trees (and other crops), foundations and basements.The article focuses on the system of surface drainage.
- advantages of surface drainage
- Types guttering
- drainage device to the drainage design drainage
- Stages Linear drainage device
- Stages arrangement point drainage
- shallow draft channels
The advantages of surface drainage
device system does not require major investments by reducing earthworks.The resulting outage probability is reduced structural strength of the soil, that is, the drawdown.
- By organizing outdoor drainage line type greatly expanded coverage areas for catchment, with the reduced value of such as the length of the sewer line.
- Carrying system can be made without violating the integrity of the whole of the existing pavement.It is carried out according to the width of the Box gutters.
- system is suitable for mounting on a rocky or unstable soils.And in those places where it is impossible to produce in-depth work (architectural monuments, underground utilities).
Drains - part of the storm-water systems, which are used in the improvement of both public and private lands.There are 2 types of systems: linear and point.
- linear system consists of trenches, trashbox sometimes and gullies.This design copes with its task over large areas.At its organization earthworks minimized.Its installation is required in areas with clay soil or a slope of more than 3º.
- point system is locally located gullies, combined underground pipelines.The system is optimal for the collection of water from roof gutters.Also, it is suitable for installation sites with modest areas or where there are no restrictions for arrangement of linear drainage.
Each system is characterized by efficiency, but their combination is the best option in the organization of drainage.
device drainage for drainage
To organize drainage line or a point and apply the various elements of the device, where each component fulfills its purpose.Competent their union leads to productive work.
drainage trays - an integral part of the linear system used to collect rain and melt water.Then direct the excess moisture to drain or, at least, is withdrawn away from the site.The channels are made of concrete, polymer concrete and plastic.
- Plastic Products are light weight and easy installation.Especially for this purpose have been developed plugs, adapters, fasteners and other components to facilitate the process of assembly and installation.Despite the high performance (strength and frost resistance) of the material used, they are limited load - up to 25 tons.These gutters are installed on the suburban areas, pedestrian zones, bicycle lanes, which does not provide for high mechanical stress.
- trays of concrete - undoubtedly strong, durable and affordable.They are able to maintain a very solid load.Their installation is appropriate in areas of transportation fare, such as a driveway or nearby garages.Top mounted steel or cast iron grates.Reliable fastening system does not allow to change the position during operation.
- polymer concrete channels combine the best indicators of plastic and concrete.With low weight products take a significant load and have higher physical and technical properties.Accordingly, and have decent cost.Due to the smooth surface of the sand troughs, sparse foliage, twigs and other outdoor debris pass without difficulty.Correct installation and periodic cleaning of drainage systems guarantee long-term service.
- This element of the system is responsible for filtering water from sand, soil and other particulate matter.Trash box is equipped with a basket, in which the outsider is going to waste.Equipment installed in the vicinity of the drain into the sewer system will ensure the most efficient operation.
- Trash boxes as trays, must match the type of load.Since this element is in a bundle with the other components of the drainage system, it must be of the same material as the rest of the chain links.
- Its upper part has the same shape as the gutter.It also closes the drain grate, so peskopriemnik externally visible.To reduce its level position (below the freezing depth of soil) can be achieved by installation of these elements to each other.
- trashbox design provides for laterals to connect to an underground storm sewer pipes.Outlet bends standard diameters located substantially above the bottom, so the fine particles settling remain there.
- Peskopriemnik can also be made of concrete, polymer and synthetic polymer.The package includes steel, cast iron, plastic lattice.This may be selected depending on the intended volume of water withdrawn and the load level in the area of its installation.
- Meltwater and rainwater collected from the roof gutters of the building falls on the blind area.In these areas, and the gullies are set, representing the square shape of the container.Their installation is appropriate and in the places where it is not possible to equip the surface drainage line type.
- Since gullies act as trashbox, they are complemented by waste collectors, which is regularly cleaned and siphon safeguard against odorous substances coming from the sewage.Also, they are equipped with nozzles for connection with underground drainage pipes.
- Most often they are made of cast iron or durable plastic.The upper part has a grating, load bearing, prevents the ingress of coarse dirt and performs a decorative function.The grid can be plastic, steel or cast iron.
- grille - part of the surface drainage.She takes over the mechanical load.This element is visible, so the product is attached to a decorative look.
- drainage grate is classified in accordance with the operating loads.So for the backyard, suburban area suitable articles of Class A or C. For this purpose plastic, copper or steel lattice.
- iron products are renowned for their durability.Such a lattice is used in the regeneration of areas with high traffic load (90 tons).Although iron corrosion resistant and require regular staining alternative to it in strength is not there.
- As for the life of the drainage grates, cast iron products that will last at least a quarter-century of steel - about 10 years, plastic lattice will have to change in 5 seasons.
calculation system for large areas is made according to hydro projects, which takes into account every nuance of: precipitation intensity, landscape design and more.On its basis the determined length and the number of elements of the drainage system.
- for a country or suburban areas is sufficient to draw a plan of the territory, which is marked the location of the drain.Here is calculated the number of troughs, connecting elements and other components.
- width of the channel is selected depending on the capacity.The optimum width of the trays for residential buildings is considered to be 100 mm.In areas with high water discharge chute can be used and widths up to 300 mm.
- attention should be paid and the diameter of the tap.Standard cross section of sewer pipe is 110 mm.Therefore, if the output aperture has a different diameter - it is necessary to use an adapter.
rapid outflow of water through the channel will provide a surface with a slope.Arrange the slope in the following ways:
- use of natural inclination;
- by excavation to create surface slope (at minimum differential);
- pick up trays with different heights, is applicable only in a small area;
- purchase channels, in which the inner surface is sloped.Typically, such products are made of concrete.
Stages Linear drainage device
- By stretched strings are marked border drainage.If the system passes on the tarmac markings made with sand or chalk.
- Further excavation is done.On the paved area used a jackhammer.
- Trench width should be more than a tray of about 20 cm (10 cm on each side).The depth of the trough under the light material is calculated based on sand cushion (10-15 cm).Under the concrete trays plank first layer of crushed stone, sand and then 10-15 cm each.It is worth noting that after the installation of the drainage grill should be placed 3-4 mm below the surface level.The bottom of the trench can be filled with concrete and skinny, but such actions are carried out, if not provided for passage of vehicles.
- going drainage system.The trench and stacked trays by a tongue and groove fasteners are fixed to each other.Often, products are marked by an arrow pointing in the direction of water movement.If necessary, the joints are sealed with polymer components.Next
- mounted trash box.Highway drainage through the fittings connected to peskopriemnikom and sewage pipes.
- empty space between the troughs and the walls of the trench is filled with gravel or earth dug out earlier and carefully compacted.It is also possible to fill sand and gravel solution.
- established channels closed protective and decorative grilles.It is worth noting that if the regeneration of drainage used plastic trays, then the grid is set so fill the space with concrete mix.
Stages arrangement point drainage
- In areas with the greatest accumulation of moisture escapes pit.The width of the hole should be equal to the size of the container inlets.Please note that the lattice should also be just below the surface of the earth.
- also carried out dredging and laying the ground for a linear line or drain pipes.It is important to follow the slope of about 1 cm per linear meter of the surface.
- bottom of the pit and compacted sand settling a pillow, a layer of 10-15 cm. On top of it is filled with concrete mix of about 20 cm thick.
- Next set of street inlets that connect to the drainage trays or pipes.
- Finally mounted siphon inserted Cart-waste container and set bars.
- inlets design allows you to install several containers on top of each other.This enables zaglubit tail pipes below the frost line.
shallow draft channels
rocky soil difficult to install gutters of standard sizes.In this regard, some manufacturers offer products with little depth foundations, where the channel height is 95 mm.
- Typically trays are made of plastic with high physical and technical performance.The package includes drainage grating in galvanized steel abrasion resistant polymer coating.
- Such channels are widely used in areas with a small amount of wastewater.With them will be able to organize an effective surface drainage with carrying out the minimum excavation.
timely and accurately established organized drainage protect against seasonal reheating foundation and green spaces, give the landscape well-groomed appearance.Expenses for improvement will pay off quickly.The system will extend the life of the structure, reduce repair costs and additional services.Consuming and costly struggle with mold in the basement due to moisture bypass.