purchasing or building a wooden country house, the owners very soon may be faced with the necessity of its insulation.The reasons for the low temperature inside the wooden house can be quite a lot.Often it can be low-grade timber and logs insufficient thickness.Therefore, to somehow fix the situation, need insulation wooden walls of the house.Work on the wall insulation wooden house is not particularly difficult, the main thing - to understand the technology warming wood walls.
- Features thermal insulation of wooden walls
- calculation layer of insulation
- Warming of the wooden walls outside
- Warming of the wooden walls inside
Features thermal insulation of wooden walls
wood because of its structure has a number of unique qualities and demandsparticular approach to use.The main feature of a material such as wood, is its ability to "breathe."This means that the wooden walls are free to regulate the microclimate in the house.Also,
begin with materials for thermal insulation of a wooden house.They must have the following characteristics:
- high vapor permeability.Most or the same timber as in 0.06 mg / (m * h * Pa);
- have high moisture resistance;
- have high fire safety;
- be resistant to mold and mildew.
According to these basic requirements for thermal insulation of the wooden walls are best suited following materials:
- mineral wool;
- -sawdust pellets.
addition to thermal insulation of a wooden house can be used facing brick, aerated concrete blocks, siding.Of course, the stone in combination with insulation will create the most efficient thermal insulation, but then you have to sacrifice the external beauty of a wooden house.
Important!But the use of wooden walls for insulation, extruded polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam, assembly foam, sealants or different foam is not recommended.These materials have very low water vapor permeability, which in turn is fraught with the appearance on the timber walls and mold fungi, and eventually rot.
preparing for warming wooden walls, particular attention should be paid to the technology of the thermal insulation layer.The main rule that should comply with, is as follows: steam-ability of each successive layer must be higher than the previous one, in the direction from the interior to the outside.According to this simple truth and creates a thermal insulation of a wooden house, which is a multi-layered cake.The structure of the cake for the insulation of walls on the outside consists of crates and sheathing, insulation, wind and damp-proofing.Internal insulation of wooden walls also subject to this rule, with the only difference that instead of steam, wind insulation used.
Important!If you can not decide how best to insulate wooden walls, inside or outside, the answer is definitely one - should choose insulation wooden walls outside.This is due to several reasons:
- First, keep the internal living space of the house.
- Secondly, because of the properties of wood and give moisture to accumulate, is the most effective external insulation.
- Third, the outer insulation of the wooden walls a lot easier to create.
- Fourth, when the number of external insulation of cold bridges minimum.
course, wooden wall insulation from the inside is also possible, but only if you can not create an external insulation.
calculation layer of insulation
calculation of the optimum thickness of the layer of insulation - is one of the most important steps in any home insulation, especially wood.This problem must be approached with great responsibility, since the error in the calculation of at least entail extra financial costs for insulation, and at best will result in damage to the wooden walls.Therefore, if you are not friends with formulas and calculations, it is best to contact the experts on the subject.We look at an example of calculation with comments and explanations, on which you can determine which layer of insulation required for your home.
to perform the calculations required to apply to the SNIP 23-02-2003 "Thermal protection of buildings" as well as TSN (territorial building codes).These regulations are necessary input data for the calculations and methodology.Sami calculations are based on the thermal resistance of the materials, which is constant and taken separately for each region.For example, in the Moscow region the figure is 4.15 (m2 * ° C) / W.It should also be noted that the calculation should take into account the thermal resistance (R) of each heat-insulating material in the cake, and sum them.To perform the calculations required thermal conductivity of the materials used and their thickness.
formula for calculating the thermal resistance as follows R = P / K.
Where P - the thickness of the material, K - coefficient of thermal conductivity of the material.For example, the wooden wall outside is finished with facing bricks, and between them is a layer of mineral wool.Then, the total heat transfer resistance of the wall is equal to the sum of the resistances of each of the materials.
Based on the above calculation of this formula will do for the thickness of the thermal insulation layer.The formula for the calculation of the following P = R * K.Data on thermal conductivity take from the table of thermal conductivity materials or packaging material used, and the thermal resistance of the regulations.
For example, for Moscow and Moscow region thermal resistance equal to 4.15 (m2 * ° C) / W.If we insulate wooden wall with mineral wool 20 cm thick with the siding, then the tree is equal to the thermal resistance of 0.806 (m2 * ° C) / W, and 0.045 for mineral wool (m2 * ° C) / W.Accordingly, a layer of insulation should have a thermal resistance R = 4,15-0,806-0,045 = 3,299 m2 * ° C.
Now we take the thermal conductivity of mineral wool 0.41 W / m * K and multiplied by the thermal resistance P = 3,299 * 0,041 = 0,135 m. Similarly, we can calculate the layer thickness for any other insulation in the various regions of the country.
're calculate the area of thermal insulation and to buy all the necessary materials.The first is the very rock wool, wind and moisture protection as well as a vapor barrier.Additionally required wooden slats 130h50 mm thick, the same height as insulated walls, and fixing them.As for fixing the wooden slats can use regular long screws or metal corners with holes for screws.The number of strips is taken into account that the distance between them should be 2 - 5 cm less than the width of insulation mats.Fasteners are purchased at the rate of 1 - 2 attachment points on 1 m running.Also acquire rail 50x30 mm or 50h20 mm kontrobreshetki.The total number of such strips is taken into account that the frame kontrobreshetki consists of 3 horizontal rows around the perimeter of the house.
Warming of the wooden walls outside
As already noted, insulation of wooden walls outside - the easiest and most affordable way to warming.Start warming wooden house should be a year or two.This is important since the tree during this time shrinks, leading to a change in the height of the building.In addition, the shrinkage will show up new cracks that have well-caulked.
Warming of the wooden walls with their hands outside performed in various ways.Consider the most common - mineral wool insulation with finishing siding.The works are held in several stages:
1. Check the wall in the presence of cracks and density logs or boards fit together.
2. If necessary prokonopachivaem all found the gap.
3. First We measure the total length of the wall from end to end.Then divide it into equal intervals of length 2 - 5 cm lower than the mineral wool mat.
4. be marked under the crate wall.
5. Prepare bars for crates, cut them to the desired length.
6. Initially, fasten the bars along the perimeter walls.One of the foundation, one under the visor and two on the sides.
7. In the resulting box is placed at the beginning and we fix the frame around the window and door openings, and then vertical bars sheathing according to the markup.
Important!If the length of the bar is not enough to cover the height of the wall, the missing pieces must be placed in a staggered manner in each successive rack.For example, the 1st rack from the bottom consists of a long, on top of a short side, 2nd Front - a short block from the bottom, the top long.
8. Now take the mats of mineral wool and insert them between studs.Since the distance between the bars slightly smaller than the width of the mat, the mineral wool will be held within a spacer.To reduce the number of thermal bridges mineral wool can be laid in two layers.It's enough to buy a mat of lesser thickness.For example, when the total thickness of the layer of insulation 13 cm thick mats can be used for 50 mm or 70 mm.Moreover, each subsequent layer is placed to be offset from the first.
9. Over the insulation layer plank moisture and wind insulation of superdiffuzionnye membrane.Secure it to the frame using a stapler.
10. stuffed sheathing, thus creating a ventilation gap of 30 mm between the insulation and finishing materials.
11. At the end of the facade is finished with siding.
If you plan to finish with facing bricks, the best to use as insulation ecowool pellets or sawdust, pellets.These materials during filling between the wooden wall and facing fill all the voids, thereby creating a reliable heat-insulating protection.Warming of the wooden walls of mineral wool on the outside finished with facing bricks on their technology is similar to the finish siding.The difference lies in the use of finishing materials and the obligatory presence of the foundation under the brick.
Warming of the wooden walls inside
As already noted, insulation of wooden walls inside is a rare phenomenon.Typically, this method of insulation is selected when there is no possibility to do external insulation.The technology of works is very similar to an external insulation, but there are some differences.Let us consider the stages and features of work with insulation inside the wooden walls:
1. After shrinking home check them for cracks and carefully caulk them.
2. Zasverlivaem the crown small holes for ventilation.
3. Mark up the space for kontrobreshetki.
4. Cut the bars for kontrobreshetki and fasten them to the wall.This will create a ventilated gap between the wall and the insulation, which in turn will keep the walls from the inside zaprevaniya.
Important!Since the heater is not located over the entire wall area, the natural cold bridges are flooring, interior walls and ceilings.To block them, need to warm the surface of the ceiling and floor.As it looks, you can see on demonstrating internal insulation of wooden walls photo.
5. sheathe kontrobreshetku superdiffuzionnaya membrane and anchoring it to the bar by means of staples.
6. Mark up the space for the main battens.Getting out of the corners, and brings them to the center.Do not forget about the door and window openings.They are framing bars opening on the perimeter.
7. Initially, fasten the bars along the perimeter of the wall, and then set the vertical and openings.The distance between the bars take 2 - 5 cm less than the insulation mats.
8. Take the heater and insert it between the furring strips.As is the case with the external insulation, insulation decompose in two layers with an offset to each other.Thereby eliminating the possibility of cold bridges.
9. plank on top of a heater, steam, and fasten it to the uprights by means of staples.
10. After the installation of thermal insulation of walls insulated ceiling and floor.This will make the wall sheathing and insulation of the floor to eliminate possible cold bridges.
11. sheathe the walls of plasterboard and perform finishing.
method described above wooden wall insulation from the inside provides for the use of mineral wool mats.In addition it can also be used ecowool pellets or sawdust, pellets.But unlike external insulation, blow granules have a space between the wall and the vapor barrier film, that somewhat inconvenient and requires specialized equipment.
Execution of insulation wooden walls only requires skillful handling of the tool.Of course, comparing internal and external insulation, is the difficulty and demanding performance during the work inside the house.Therefore, if you do not have sufficient experience, it is better to opt for external insulation, and if it is impossible to appeal to the more experienced masters.