Gone already are the days when the only way to warm the cottage was a stove.It is because of lack of an effective heating and hot-water, many do not want to live outside the city, moving into comfortable flats.But the benefits of civilization reached and country houses.Modern technologies and materials allow to equip the heating system of a private house with his own hands, to no longer endure hardship.Now the comforts of a country house will be no worse than the city.There are several ways to make heating in a private house, which are different structural elements and energy.On them we will cover in this article.
- What might be the heating system of a private house
- Water heating private house
- Steam heating private house
- Air heating private house
- Electric heating private house
- scheme of the heating system of a private house with a liquid coolant
- One-pipe water heating system
- -pipe water heating system
- collector water heating system
- installation of the heating system of a private house
What might be the heating system of a private house
primarily heating systems differ in the type of coolantwhich directly and heats the room, giving warmth.There are water systems, steam, air, electrical and open flames.Recent implemented in fireplaces, furnaces and Russian crude.In areas where heating is realized in this way, the heat is distributed unevenly: near the floor cold air near a heat source (oven), hot and cold air in the distance.In principle, a small house can be quite warm and high quality oven, but we will not focus on these systems, and let's talk about those who are able to provide a more uniform heating of the big house.
Water heating private house
water heating system is a closed circuit, which circulates hot water.The heating element serves as the boiler of a housework diverge tube, in each room radiators through which hot water and gives off heat.Having warm water is again returned to the boiler where it is heated, and the cycle repeats.
for the boiler water system is suitable for any available fuel.The most common are boilers , as they are economical.Heating apparatus in a private house via gas is only possible if the gas is brought to the home line.Another disadvantage is that gas boilers require regular maintenance and control of the special services.However, the gas heating is in great demand.
If negazifitsirovannyh area, you can use solid fuel boiler (coal, wood, pallets).In this case the system will completely autonomous and independent of the supply of primary energy.But for the storage of solid fuels will have to be equipped with comfortable and dry storage.
oil boilers , such as diesel, and can be used for water heating.This method has several drawbacks: very expensive diesel fuel, heating turns out uneconomical fuel storage will need a tank buried in the ground that, despite all precautions, a fire hazard.
Electric boiler , connected to the main power supply, will also perform well.But if you have already decided to use electricity as an energy source, it is more expedient to install electric radiators to directly convert electrical energy into heat energy without the mediation of water.
for everything completely autonomous heating, you can use alternative energy, solar and wind inverters, mini-hydro, and more.
boiler output is selected depending on the area of the house.Sample characteristics can be found in the table.
water in the heating system can be circulated as water and antifreeze.Also, the system may be additional elements for its adjustment.The expansion tank is used to collect excess fluid, thermostats necessary for temperature control before each radiator circulating pump to force the movement of the water is not always used, as well as automatic air vent, shut-off and safety valves.
If you are wondering how much it costs heating private house, then you can calculate it yourself.First we need to determine the type of energy source.We consider the case with a gas boiler.So, we need to buy a boiler, pipes, radiators for every room, expansion tank, valves, fittings, all the related materials.But before all of this purchase, you should make a private home heating scheme, which will be clearly stated position of the boiler and radiators, pipe length, and more.Project work "costing a pretty penny", permits, approvals, and installation plus.As a result, conduct heating at a private house costs about 9,000 - 11,000 USD
cost of equipment for the heating system will depend largely on the materials.For example, cast iron radiators are , steel , aluminum , stainless steel .Cheapest cast iron, they are also very heavy and short-lived.Stainless most expensive, few can afford to install them throughout the house.Pipes for heating pipeline, too, are made of different materials: steel (stainless steel, galvanized steel), copper , polymer (metal and plastic, polypropylene, polyethylene).It is considered the most reliable copper pipes, since they can withstand large temperature gradients, and the connection is soldered with silver solder.Plastic pipes, though easy to install and are not afraid of corrosion, but have a significant drawback - fear changes in temperature and lose their strength if they bend.Steel pipes have recently used rarely, although stainless and galvanized are not afraid of corrosion, durable and well connected.
on the cost of materials and labor for installation in a private home heating affects the type of water heating system, which can be single-tube, double pipe and collector.This will be discussed below.
Water heating system has several drawbacks: difficult and time-consuming installation, regular maintenance and inspection of the boiler, but it is very popular among country residents compared with other systems.
Steam heating private house
steam heating system is implemented on the following principle: the boiler heats the water pressure to a state of boiling, the resulting vapor through line out to the radiators, where its heat is condensed back to water and returned to theboiler.The air is squeezed out of the system with hot steam.According to the principle of return condensate to the boiler are two types of systems: Open (Open) and closed (closed).In open systems have tank in which the condensate accumulates and then flows into the boiler.In closed systems, the condensate is returned to the boiler alone on the wide tube.
Important!Steam heating is not used in private homes.«Steam" mistakenly called "water" heating.In fact, the boiler for steam heating is a huge machine, the size of a room, it is very difficult to operate, as well as dangerous.Such heating is used only in plants where production needs required for couples.Even in this case, heat emitting elements are carefully isolated from human, since the steam temperature 115 ° C.
Air heating private house
The air heating system can be fitted in the house only during the construction phase, in the finished apartment building is impossible.
operating principle of this system is that heat source heats the air, which then rises through the air ducts in the room and out the ceiling so as to displace the cold air trapped near a window or door.Cold air is forced into the ducts leading to the boiler.So is the circulation, which can be gravitational or forced.
gravity circulation is due to the difference in temperature, when the amount of warm air is large enough, it displaces the cold air ducts in the side.The disadvantage of this method is that the open windows or doors circulation is disturbed.
For forced circulation fan used to increase air pressure.
The figure shows heating private house with the help of air.
in heat can burn natural gas, kerosene or diesel.Thus, natural gas can be either from the mains or cylinder.The combustion products leave the chimney.
To freshen the air is mixed in clean air, the fence which may be outside.
ducts may be made from metal, plastic or textiles, as well as having the shape of a circular or rectangular.According to the structure of the ducts are rigid and flexible.Adjacent to the outer walls or unheated rooms need to be sure to insulate the ducts.To properly calculate how must be placed air heating system at home, what should be the size of the ducts, what network topology, you should contact a specialist.Construction of such a system for the two-storey house can cost 11,000 USD
Electric heating private house
Heating homes with electricity can be achieved in several ways: by means of panel heaters , systems "warm floor» , long-wave infrared heaters (ceiling).
Heating homes with electricity can not be called economical.Sometimes even equipped with hot-water heating system and connect it to the boiler run on electricity.This method has a major drawback: the high cost of electricity and heat loss.Therefore advised to install the electric boiler as a backup, in addition to the gas (subject to availability of gas pipeline).
But if there is no other available source of energy, we have to use what we have.Then, more economical and expedient will not use the boiler and immediately Heaters.
To calculate the number of required devices, you should know the amount of space and its degree of thermal insulation.For example, for heating a house of 100 m2 with a ceiling height of 3 m, the volume of 300 m3 is obtained, if the room slaboizolirovannoe its heating demand is 40 W / m3.Total, multiply the amount of space on the need, we get 12,000 watts.This need can be met by installing 4 convector capacity of 2.5 kW each and 1 convector - 2 kW.The cost of equipment is about 1300 - 1500 USDThis is considerably less than the improvement of water heating with gas boiler, but much less efficiently when paying energy source.
panel heaters disadvantage of using a non-uniform heating of premises: the floor near the cold and hot air accumulates near the ceiling.In order to uniformly heat the room, you can optionally install the system "warm floor".
scheme of the heating system of a private house with a liquid coolant
Water heating system can be single-or dual- .Single circuit is only used for heating, and dual heating and hot water for household needs.In practice, in private homes often set two single-circuit system: one - especially for heating water, the second - for heating.This is convenient for the fact that the second boiler is not operating in non-heating season.
According to the principle of movement of water in the system distinguish between single-pipe, two-pipe and collector system.
-pipe water heating system
In a one-pipe system, water passes successively from one radiator to another.In each subsequent radiator coolant temperature is lower and lower.In the latter, it may be insufficient to heat the room.This system is virtually impossible to adjust, so as to block access to one radiator, water overlaps access to all others.Also, if a heat sink is broken, will have to completely turn off the system, play off the water, and only then replace it with a new or repaired.
-pipe water heating system
pipe system capable of better quality heat a house, as each radiator fit two tubes, one - hot water through the other - leaving the water cooled down.In this hot-water pipe is connected to all radiators simultaneously.If the front of every radiator valves installed, you can disable any of the radiator system.In the final heat sink, which is suitable pipe with hot water, the temperature will be lower than in the first, but the loss will be insignificant compared to the one-pipe system.
collector water heating system
collector system implies that the pipe going from the collector to each radiator separately: one - with hot water, on the other returned to the water cooled down.This system allows you to adjust the temperature in any room, and easy to replace or repair any part of the system without switching off the heating.Manifold System - the most advanced.The only drawback: the additional installation of the collector cabinet and a large flow pipe.
installation of the heating system of a private house
First of all you should decide what kind of heating system is best done in a particular house.The most optimal solution would be to install the system, the energy carrier for which is more accessible and cost effective, economical heating private home to many very important.For example, if the gas is brought to the house, you can install a water heating system with two boilers - one gas (main), the second - electric (spare) or wood, so that in case of force majeure to be completely non-volatile.
The next step should be to contact the project office, which will make the relevant calculations, the design documentation and drawings of the heating of private homes.Only then can acquire the necessary equipment and materials.
First installed heating boiler.For all boilers, which are the products of combustion, in addition to electric, you need to equip the boiler room.This is a separate room, or a room in the basement, which made good ventilation.The boiler is installed at a distance from the walls to allow easy access.The floor and walls around the boiler is lined with refractory material.From the street the boiler output chimney.
further installation of heating in a private home is to install a circulating pump (if required), manifold (if provided by the system), measuring and control devices near the boiler.
Only then the boiler pipe line leading to the installation of radiators.To carry through the tube walls have to make holes in them that after the tube is stretched, it is necessary to cover grout.Pipes must be connected starting from the material of manufacture.
At least mounted radiators.They are mounted on brackets is obligatory under the window opening.If the size of the radiator is not enough to close the gap, you must install two radiators or build section, if possible.