Plazmorez can not be named for everyday use in the household.The economic needs, he rarely comes in handy, mainly in the period of intensive construction.But in the industrial and construction field plasma cutting machine - irreplaceable thing.Rather than fret and cut sheet metal manual grinder can be used plazmorez, then the work will be carried out quickly and efficiently, the cut will be smooth, neat, free of burrs and scale.Plasma cutting used in machinery for the manufacture and repair of metal structures and equipment, pipe cutting and sheet metal in the municipal, business and advertising sphere.In novice, never work with this technology, it may be a reasonable question, how to choose plazmorez for different needs.In this article, we describe the principle of operation and plazmoreza about what characteristics to consider when choosing.
- Advantages and disadvantages of using plazmoreza
- plazmoreza Principle of operation and consumables
- How to choose plazmorez
- Types plazmorezov
- current strength and the thickness of the workpiece
- built-in or external compressor
- frequency of replacement of consumables
- ConvenienceUse plazmoreza
Advantages and disadvantages of using plazmoreza
There is always an individual who will say that it is more convenient to work grinder for light and flame cutoff work in difficult situations.And, frankly, it's a private matter, but these personal preference in no way detract from the advantages that can offer plasma cutting.
Advantages of plazmoreza :
- Cutting speed .In carrying out the cutting of metal up to 50 - 60 mm in the increased productivity of 5 - 10 times.More than can be considered reasonable only laser system for cutting.
- Ability to handle any metal : steel, stainless steel, titanium, iron, copper, aluminum and alloys.It is only necessary to choose the correct amperage.
- No need to pre-prepare the item / workpiece - remove rust, paint or dirt.They are absolutely not interfere with the process.
- slice quality .It turns out accurate, even, without sag and scale, virtually no further processing is required.
- the cut is heated only in a narrow range , so thermal deformation of the metal blanks are minimal, even if the thickness of the metal is very small.
- Security in the sense that it is not used gas cylinders.To work plazmoreza needs only air.
- opportunity to make cuts figured form , restrictions on the geometry of the cut there.
- Minimum pollution due to non-use of gas.
disadvantages of using plazmoreza :
- relatively small permissible thickness of metal cutting. In most advanced industrial models, it does not exceed 80 - 100 mm.For comparison, for oxygen cutting restriction - 500 mm.
- Pretty stringent requirement perpendicular position relative to the workpiece .So maximum deviation is considered 10 - 50 °, if it exceed the width of the cut increases, and with it the deterioration of expendable parts.
- Loss of use of two cutters , connected to a single unit.
As you can see, the benefits from a lot of plasma cutting.With it you can cut and process the metal for doors, gates, fences and fences curly, produce parts with holes, brackets, stairs, moldings, heating and ventilation system, cut and remove large structures, and more.
plazmoreza Principle of operation and consumables
First, let's define what a plasma in this particular case. Plasma - is the air heated by an electric arc to a very high temperature of 25,000 - 30,000 ° C and is in an ionized state.As is known, the ionized air stops being an insulator and begins to conduct electrical current which melts the metal and blows it out of the slice.
plasma torch - is the main working body plazmoreza, not the plazmorez as it is sometimes called.The plasma torch - a plasma cutter, which is connected to the main unit with a package consisting of a cable and the air hose.
Plasma torches are different: direct and indirect .In the case of direct action of the plasma torches separable workpiece included in the circuit, in other words, an arc discharge occurs between the metal and the electrode in a plasma torch.It is this kind of detail data set in plasma cutting machines, used for the treatment of metal workpieces.But for non-metallic parts used plasmotrons indirect action, if there is an arc directly into the cutter.
nozzle - determines the capabilities of all of the plasma torch, it can be of various sizes.The diameter of the nozzle depends on how much air can be by yourself to miss it, and depends on the size of the cut and the speed and intensity of the cooling of the plasma torch.For plasma cutting nozzles typically use small diameter - 3 mm and of great length - 9 - 12 mm.The greater the length of the nozzle, the higher the quality of the cut, but too much of the length leads to a rapid deterioration and destruction of the nozzle and reduces reliability.The optimum length of the nozzle is 1.5 - 1.8 times the diameter.
Electrode cathode inside the plasma torch or a metal rod acts, mainly of hafnium.In the more expensive devices may be used other constructions.
During plasma cutting gases are also used: the plasma-forming and protective.So in devices with a maximum current of 200 A and designed for cutting metal of up to 50 mm thickness is used only air , which acts both as the plasma, and as a protective gas.In this case, the cut quality is satisfactory, even though there may be some oxidation of the machined surface.In more sophisticated systems use other industrial gases - oxygen, hydrogen, argon, helium, nitrogen and mixtures thereof.
The design of the nozzle and electrode plazmoreza are consumables that require timely replacement.Below we talk about how much they lack.
How to choose plazmorez
So, what to look for when choosing a device for plasma cutting?First - versatility.For example, a device called "plazmorez CUT» designed purely for cutting metals.But besides them there are other - devices that combine multiple functions simultaneously: CUT - cutting, TIG - TIG and MMA - arc welding electrode.Depending on the needs of the device can be used for any of these purposes.But note that such flexibility is bad for the quality and efficiency of the final.Anyway you choose.
Plazmorez FoxWeld Plasma 43 Multi just refers to a universal device, designed to work in a network with a voltage of 220 V Rated current - 60A, but it can be controlled: for MMA in the range of 10 - 150 A,for TIG - 10 - 160 A and the plasma cutting CUT in the range from 20 A to 40 A. The maximum thickness of metal that can be cut by means of such apparatus, is 11 mm (ferrous metals and stainless steel).The cost of this is plazmoreza 530 - 550 USD
plasma cutting machines are divided into two types:
Transformer plazmorez can cut sheets up to 40 mm thick.
Plazmorez inverter is designed for cutting metal up to 30 mm thick.Thus consumes less power and has a 30% greater efficiency than transformer.Another important point - a more stable arc burning in the inverter unit, and its compactness, allowing to make work in tight spaces.
plazmorezy also divided into contact and contactless .First you need to get started touching the metal workpiece and the second - no.Typically, contact is provided only at the ignition of the models calculated for cutting 10 - 15 mm metal.More complex machines for metal cutting 20 - 80 mm thick already have a contactless ignition.
And plazmorezy are household and industrial and different demands on the grid.For example, household models can operate on 220 V, and professional only 380 V. Note plazmorezy have tremendous power - more than 4.5 kW, each network in the private sector will be able to withstand such loads.Before buying definitely need to make sure that your network will cope with heavy loads, because in addition to plazmoreza will have to be connected and the compressor.But more on that later.
current strength and the thickness of the workpiece
The most important independent of each other selection criteria plazmoreza are current and the maximum thickness of the metal, which can handle a particular plazmorez.The higher the current in plazmoreze, the arc heats the metal stronger and faster it melts, respectively.
to choose the right plazmorez of amperage, you must know exactly how to handle any metal device is used, and what will be the thickness of the workpiece.Cutting different metals require different amperage.It can be found in the table below.
Table 1. What current strength is necessary to cut various metals .
For example, you need a device with which you are going to cut the steel sheet thickness of 3 mm, then consider: 3x4 = 12 A. Do not take plazmorez minimum index, ie12 But, because this value is the ideal option.It is better to take the device with a margin of at least 25 - 30%, i.e.calculated at a current of 20 A. If
necessary to cut the copper billet 40 mm, then the unit will need 40h6 = 240 A, i.e.Professional - Industrial.
Important!Always take plazmorez with a margin of current strength, so as not to overload it.Expect a maximum thickness of the metal alone, as often in the technical data indicates the thickness of the rate that will be cut ferrous metals.
striking example plazmorez TelWin Superior Plasma 60 HF 400V with a current of 60 A, but the characteristics specified thickness of 20 mm.If the count is to cut 20 mm copper must be 120 A. By the way, this machine is designed for a network with a voltage of 380 V and has a capacity of 7.5 kW, so that the home is clearly not fit.The cost of such plazmoreza is 1770 - 1780 USDThe advantages of this model are: a microprocessor to facilitate the work, the potentiometer for adjusting the current in increments of 15 A built-in manometer to determine the pressure of the air plug inputs for fast cable connections.And, of course, the kit includes a plasma torch.Generally
Italian brand TelWin produces various models with a current of 25 A, 40 A, 50 A, 60 A, 80 A, 90 A, 120 A and 160 A. However, they are produced not only in Italy, but also in China, so pay close attention to the country of origin indicated on the package.Although the manufacturer claims that in any event complied with EU standards.
plazmoreza intensity of use is very important when choosing a machine.
In plazmorezov have such characteristics graph as PV ( duty cycle ), which is calculated as a percentage.What is the unit can operate, and what he needs to rest and cool.The basis is the duty cycle to 10 minutes.For example, if the duty cycle = 40%, it means that can operate plazmorez 4 minutes and 6 minutes requires more relaxing.If the duty cycle = 80%, the operating time - 8 minutes and rest time - 2 minutes.
Important!Activation plazmoreza depends on the strength of the current.The higher the amperage used in the process, the lower the duty cycle.
If you plan to conduct infrequent cutting of metal structures to construction sites, it is enough to plazmoreza simpler, with less than 50% MF or equal to 50%.In this case it will be used for auxiliary operations.If the planned cutting of metal all day, then you need to select the device with PV as close to 100%, by the way, there is a model with a 100% duty cycle, they can be used throughout the shift without a break, but they are most commonly usedwater cooling.
Among the available domestic models on the market, plazmorez SVAROG has the largest duty cycle of 60% at maximum current.This is especially true of models with a current higher than 60 A, designed for a network of 380 V. By the way, if you think that a purely Slavic word "Svarog" mean that these plazmorezy Russian production, forced to disappoint you - no, it is only a profitable marketingthe name of a purely Chinese products imported into Russia.
All other plazmorezy known brands TelWin, FoxWeld BlueWeld and duty cycle have no more than 35%.
But plazmorez Resanta IPR-25 Chinese production (brand from Latvia) have the PX 25 A = 35%, the PX 20 A = 60 A and 15 A PV = 100%.The range of the current model in the 5 to 25 A.
Built-in or external compressor
for plasma formation necessary supply of compressed air, and from where does this air determines whether the built-in compressor or plazmorezaan external. plazmorezov models with built-in compressor have too much power, so are only used in a residential and private enterprises.These devices are easy to move and use in difficult places because they do not require a connection to the pneumatic system.
plazmoreza for continuous use during the whole working day needs an external compressor .It is imperative to note that air flow plazmoreze should not be greater than the amount produced by the air compressor.And, of course, the air pressure in plazmoreze should not exceed a pressure which ensures the compressor.Just the right balance of these parameters provides a stable arc and high performance work plazmoreza throughout the working day.
Important!The air must be absolutely dry and free of oil and other impurities.For drying requires a special dehumidifier.Incoming air should be at a uniform rate, without a ripple.
It is imperative to comply with this condition and be sure to follow the instructions to plazmorezu.Improper use will result in rapid failure and you do not even realize what had happened.For example, searching for the most reliable of the best device you chose plazmoreze Hypertherm American production by 45 A, which is almost 3000 USD, but on the first day of work you will burn torch handle.And no one will replace it under warranty.Why is that?
Imagine plazmoreza between the nozzle and the electrode breaks the plasma with a temperature of 20,000 ° C, it sees by moving air at a rate of 60 - 100 l / min.Now imagine what would happen if the supply air is not dry, but with a touch of moisture.This moisture will explode straight into the plasma torch, with the affected zirconium inclusion on the electrode, the electrode, diffuser and nozzle.We'll have to buy it all, the benefit of all of the above is the consumables and available for sale separately from the device.
frequency of replacement of consumables
most chastozamenyaemymi details plazmoreza are electrode and nozzle .