text of this article describes how to make the wiring by hand.At first glance, this process may seem complicated, but following the advice and following the rules, everyone will succeed.
- Getting Started wiring
- wiring methods
- open wiring
- hidden wiring
- Preparing for installation wiring own hands
- Terms &Installation safety switches and sockets
- installation of sockets and switches
- control over the operation of electrical
- approximate calculations of the cost of wiring
- Mains connection
Getting Started wiring
Getting electrical wiring in the housewith their own hands, we must try to make so that it was possible, wire or cable, replace or delete, and do not harm the house.For this purpose it is necessary to do the wiring in special pledged during the construction of the house through nozzles or building structures created for this purpose.The resulting installation gaps between the pipes and cables m
Wiring is done in two main ways - open and concealed wiring.
This type of wiring is done on the walls, in special plinths for cables, plastic pipes.Height mounting open wiring is not standardized.In the process of laying the cable wirings baseboards can not assemble with power, low-voltage wires and lighting.Skirting must fit tightly to the wall, the gap between them should not reach a distance greater than 2 mm.It is recommended to purchase the baseboards of fireproof materials having insulating properties.
This method allows you to wiring hidden.This wiring is located in a designated building cavities inside walls, in the construction of suspended ceilings.The horizontal sections of the power cable wiring laid in the preparation floor.
If you plan to do the wiring lighting network, located in the premises designed voids, under plaster or in partitions, it is best to use wires and cables are protected against mechanical damage.When installing the electrical wiring hidden under a layer of plaster, wire must be placed vertically or horizontally.The partitions can be made gasket shortest paths, provided that the thickness of the partition is more than 80 mm.When using this method of wiring, you must make sure that the wires flat against the base of the Grooves.
It is important to remember that in panel houses application of the method rendered monolithic lining is not allowed when installing the home.
for wiring in the construction of false ceilings to be used only distribute or support combustion cables and wires.When wiring in areas with high humidity in order to insure against the electric shock, for mounting flush can use wires protected PVC sheath.The wires in the metal shell to use for these purposes is prohibited.It permits the wiring in steel pipes.
It is important that the layer of plaster over the pipe thickness was not less than 10 mm.When the external wiring with exposed wiring is required to see to it that they were not available in places of frequent, regular visits.These sites include, for example, balcony.
Preparing for installation wiring own hands
Before proceeding directly to the electrical wiring should be carried out preparatory work: procurement, marking and punching.The first step is to determine the location of wiring in the house.At the initial stage it is necessary to make the scheme wiring, noting her location cable entry into the house, sockets, lighting, circuit breakers.The next step is marking works in the circuit wiring layout lines, which will be held wires and place where there will be a junction box, which is usually set at a height of about half a meter from the floor in a heated place.
When wiring layout should begin with the tramline main wire bundle, its branches, and the place of their turns.Do not forget that they must be placed in strict vertical and horizontal position.It is recommended that horizontal stripes, retreating about 20 cm from the ceiling.After graduating from the markup on the walls, no harm will be done drawing on paper, which can be useful in the future to reconstruct and repair the wiring.
After that, you need the help of special tools and instruments, depending on the material of construction of the wall, namely:
- Bulgarian with diamond blade for concrete - this tool, you can work on any surface, regardless of the material from whichWall made;
- mounting a chisel and a hammer - this tool is used in a limited area of application, as the brick walls and concrete walls are not suitable.They can be applied at a relatively "light" materials, such as plaster, concrete blocks.It is more preferable, as using the grinder produces a lot of dust, which creates additional difficulties in the production of works.
above tools we need in order to do that Stroebe (recess) for installation in a wall in her wires for wiring (a depth of 2 to 3 cm and a width of about 2 cm).Once you have done these manipulations need to start stockpiling phase wiring, which includes the cutting of cables and wires.Cutting them into pieces required, should be added to their length of 10-15 cm, which are needed to connect them together.On this basis, the purchase of materials needed for the installation should be given sufficient attention to the calculation of the wiring.
In the next step you will need mortar similar to that applied to the wall as a decoration or as close on the properties, for what would be inserted to fix the wire in Stroebe and level the surface of the entire plane.To do this, you stir the dry mixture with water until smooth, and with a spatula, apply it on the wall in the right places.After the application is necessary to wait some time for what she has dried up, and the resulting unevenness leveled circular motion using styrofoam floats.
rules and safety measures during installation of switches and sockets
Where branch wires to sockets and switches, mounted junction boxes.When installing hidden wiring often use sockets and switches.The switches are usually mounted at the entrance of the room, inside or outside it.At this location preferably by a door handle.The switch should be installed so that it does not touch the door.For circuit breakers, as well as outlets for the height from the floor does not matter and is not regulated, but less practical to install breakers outlet, but at a certain distance from the floor.This measure will help with possible flooding areas and will protect tenants against electrical shock, will create a certain convenience in eliminating the consequences.According
Safety Do not install the outlet near the grounded metal devices such as gas or electric stove, sink and so on.Availability outlet near such devices are permitted only if the distance between them is more than 50 cm. There is also a ban on the establishment of outlets in wet areas.Mount outlet in the sauna, bath or shower is allowed only at a distance of 2 to 4 meters from the source of the water and a bath or shower.
mounting sockets and switches
Before you buy the necessary materials in the stores, you need to establish the existence of documents confirming the safety of these products, they must be made of materials that do not support combustion.
order to connect the wires to each other in the field of input and output wiring of the boxes, sockets, switches, the method of welding, crimping or different terminals.When electrification areas with low humidity, the wiring can be carried out in the niches of the walls or partitions, ceilings in the voids.
Install sockets and switches in two ways: open and hidden.In the first case, this is done using Enclosures made of materials which are not conductive.Enclosures are attached to the wall with glue or screws, wood screws.Switches the general rule set vrazryv phase conductor.To accommodate the wires flush apply specifically produced for this sockets and switches.They are mounted in the mounting box, which in turn are installed in the holes in the walls.
These holes do with special nozzles that are of two types: for concrete walls and wood, which is mounted on the punch.Yet they differ in diameter, which allows you to choose the desired size, depending of type selected Escutcheon.For concrete walls made with pobeditovymi nozzle tips, as when using a different material, it quickly fails.It is worth noting that you can not use attachments not their surfaces (pobeditovye nozzle on a wooden wall and vice versa), as it will significantly reduce their lifespan.
control over the operation of electrical
Subject to the rules of wiring, further operation is safer for residents and various electrical equipment.The basic requirements for the use of this type of equipment are registered in different sets of rules.Energy Organization, to conclude agreements with any owner, regularly scheduled unscheduled inspections.As a result of these audits found out the degree of proper handling of electrical installations and safety.If any defects or serious infringements imposed on the responsible person penalty.
approximate calculations of the cost of wiring
no secret that a lot of time can be saved by resorting to the help of professionals.Moreover, it will save from worries about the possible installation errors with their own hands.However, expert help is always a price.Prices of wiring depends primarily on the premises.Does it matter to the mains at home or in an apartment, as well as the cost of wiring will vary depending on the size of the room.Most of the companies involved in electrical wiring of premises taking orders with a minimum amount of work of 12 thousand rubles.The average one-bedroom apartment wiring will cost about 20 thousand rubles, and a wooden or a brick house with an area up to 70 square meters.meters - 45 thousand rubles.
Upon completion of electrical work, house ready to supply voltage.To obtain a permit for the power supply, electricity in the house, it is necessary to conclude a contract with the company for acceptance tests, in which the issue is solved the connection wiring and a constant voltage supply energy to an object.
So, if you decide to save or for any other reasons pave the wiring in the house alone, the important thing to remember the basic requirements for electrical wiring.Be sure to make calculations, to lay the wiring in accessible for changing wire and cable field, follow the instructions on the installation of sockets and switches in non-residential rooms.Detailed list of requirements specified in the rules of electrical devices.