need to be protected from water all surfaces and structures that somehow come into contact with water.The country house is the foundation, basement, roof.Inside the house or apartment - a bathroom and a bathroom, where there may be leaks and flooding.Inside the house designs - it could be a heater, which must be protected from condensation or rain.Please note that you need to be protected from water not only where it is possible to penetrate, but where, or washing the condensate water can adversely affect the material of construction.There are various types of waterproofing, which differ in purpose, place of use, as well as materials.In recent decades, the market for waterproofing materials has expanded, there were absolutely innovative solutions, but also forgotten the old ways of protection from water, such as the laying of roofing material.Among the variety of complex and not lost.To facilitate the understanding of what type of waterproofing is
- waterproofing coating waterproofing
- Okleechnaya waterproofing
- Paint waterproofing
- sprayed liquid waterproofing
- Penetrating waterproofing
- Injection waterproofing
- superdiffuzionnaya and diffusion membrane for waterproofing
- Bentonite mats
Before you go directly to these types of waterproofing, I would like to clarify a very important point.Why is it necessary to protect the water?Is it so terrible it H2O?Of course, if you have a basement foot of water, everything is understandable - it is necessary to protect the basement from the penetration of water, plug the leak.Around the same principle is used for waterproofing of the roof - the main task to prevent leaking.But it's not the only problem that can cause the water.For example, you can smear mastic inside the basement, and the basement is dry.But is that enough?Much more harm brings water seeping into the structure of the material.Salts dissolved in the water can gradually erode the material, reducing its strength and durability.Therefore, it is necessary to protect the basement from the outside, to prevent the possibility of water to penetrate into the concrete.
This is the basic rule to remember - the best protection and material of construction, and the room than just a room.
There are several classifications of waterproofing technology: according to the method of arrangement, for different applications, the title of the materials used, as well as the place and time of use.
Locally application there internal and external waterproofing .It is obvious that the internal waterproofing - a complex of measures for the protection of water, which is carried out indoors, such as waterproofing the walls and floor in the bathroom.External waterproofing is done outside of the structure, for example, protection of the foundation of the groundwater or the protection of the roof.
At the time of application distinguish primary and secondary waterproofing .Primary waterproofing constructions carried out immediately at the stage of construction.Second is a repair measure.For example, if old age or for any other reason, the primary waterproofing is damaged and can not cope with the task, then the set of measures for secondary waterproofing.In this case, the old coating is removed, the surface is thoroughly cleaned and applied new waterproofing layer.It is also possible the application of a new layer on top of the old one, but it is not recommended.
By appointment and peculiarities distinguish these types of waterproofing:
- Protivonapornaya.It Works "on the clamp."
- Gravity.It Works "peel".
- sealing joints and conjugation.
- surface and multi-purpose.
Protivonapornaya waterproofing to protect against positive water pressure.For example, if the groundwater level around the basement is very high, the outside wall of the basement waterproofing settling protivonapornaya from materials that can easily withstand a positive water pressure.Sometimes, this technology is called "acts on the clamp."This means that its weight presses the water sealing material to the walls.Use the same material on the inner walls of the foundation does not make sense, since there is more water pressure acts.
Gravity waterproofing to protect against negative water pressure.For example, if as a result of heavy rainfall or spring floods accumulated water around the foundation, you can protect yourself from it inside the premises of the basement.Its pressure is small and has a "Peel" material from the surface.
Protivokapillyarnaya waterproofing material to protect the structure from raising its moisture through the capillaries.For many building materials suck up water, which then rises through the capillaries.Such materials include, and concrete and brick.
By way everything distinguish these types of waterproofing:
- Cast and Sprayable.
- Mounted - protective sheets.
- Structural - additives in concrete during the construction phase.
- different film materials - to protect the insulation and roof.
further analyze in more detail the method of waterproofing technology for everything, because for him the easiest way to identify the purpose and characteristics of the installation.
surface waterproofing is a surface coating various mastics, single-component or two-component compositions elastic thickness from 2 mm to 5 - 6 cm.
Appointment .Used for external waterproofing of the building - the foundation for the treatment of groundwater protection, processing flat roof to protect it from rain.It is also used for interior waterproofing - basement walls processing, processing of the floor and walls bathroom.With closed surface waterproofing cracks in the walls.Suffice it to recall how the waterproofing of prefabricated houses.From a distance they look like rectangles razlineennye box.
as surface waterproofing used bitumen and bitumen-containing all materials.
Pros. cheap stuff.
- bitumen becomes brittle at temperatures below 0 ° C and loses its elasticity.Any deformation during freezing temperatures inevitably lead to cracks and breaks, and eventually the material peeled off the surface.Lifetime waterproofing bitumen 5 - 6 years.Sometimes even 3 - 4 cycles of winter enough to faulty material.
- Working with hot bitumen classified as dangerous.There are injuries in the workplace.
- requires careful surface preparation.It is necessary to clean the bottom surface of dust, debris and sag mortar repaired all the cracks, potholes and sinks.
- carry out the work only in dry weather - the concrete should be dry.
- required quality processing primer.
- Protect waterproofed surfaces from possible mechanical effects - punctures and damage.
- recovery surface waterproofing due to the damage could cost 3 - 4 times more expensive than the original application.
Conclusion: Use surface waterproofing is possible only when the probability of leaks, and so small.For example, if the groundwater level is low, it is possible to coat the walls of the basement bitumen, make drainage around the building and take the rainwater.Using surface waterproofing on the roof is no longer relevant, since the cold asphalt cracks and the ice makes it breaks its sharp edges.As a result, by the spring surface is not sealed.
Please note that appeared on the market resins, bitumen-polymer and bitumen-rubber mastic, which can be applied cold.This method of application is easier and faster than hot.But the disadvantage of polymer mastic is still the same instability of deformation.Any vibration and mechanical stress lead to cracks and breaks.
Okleechnaya waterproofing is glued to the bottom of roll materials.The most common materials are stacked in multiple layers from 2 to 5.
Appointment .It applies only to foreign protivonapornoy waterproofing.Rolled materials may be adhered to both vertical surfaces - the walls of the foundation and to the horizontal - the surface of the flat roof.
most common back-lining materials for waterproofing - roofing felt, asphalt, roofing felt, polymerised bitumen materials based on glass fiber and polyester rezinobitumy.For example, "Technonikol", "Bikrost», «Ruflex Grand», «flashing", "Plastfoil", "Stekloizol", "Bireplast Norma" and others.
Modern materials with polymer additives are more durable, do not rot and mold unlike tar paper, paperboard which quickly breaks down.
Advantages .Wood banding material can be laid on concrete, metal, wood, old roll coating, flat slate, asphalt.Materials resistant to aggressive environments, moisture resistance, and economical.
- requires careful surface preparation.Not allowed unevenness greater than 2 mm.
- Bonding and fusing materials should be done with great care.
- temperature during work must be at least + 10 ° C (there are exceptions - the elastomeric and thermoplastic materials).
- coating can break under mechanical stress or sharp objects, so it is desirable to protect.In the case of waterproofing the foundation should perform a clamping wall.
- concrete surface at gluing is completely dry.With no wet concrete adhesion.
- necessary to control the quality of welds and laps material.
- material should be glued in several layers.It is difficult to get around corners and difficult terrain base.
Despite the shortcomings, the modern roll materials based on polymerized bitumen successfully used for waterproofing basements and roofs.It is better if the lining hydraulic seals will be used in conjunction with other activities.
Paint waterproofing mastic involves applying a liquid layer 3 - 6 mm.The resulting film does not have seams and elastic enough.
Appointment .It is used for internal and external waterproofing.With the help of paint materials can be dealt with cracks in the walls, their crumbling and erosion.Also waterproofing inside the room can be easily achieved similar mastics.For example, the color of the floor and walls of the bathroom will prevent neighbors from flooding and the destruction of the wall material.
Materials : bituminous mastics with different additions of talc, asbestos and mastic based on synthetic resins.
Pros. simple, cheap, fast, specific skills to work with the material is not required.Surface abrasion resistance and water vapor permeability.
Disadvantages .Fragility - is about 5 - 6 years.
sprayed liquid waterproofing
Spray polymer-bitumen emulsion, water-based it is also called "liquid rubber".One-component and two-component compositions are applied using special mechanized equipment - spraying.
Appointment .Waterproofing of roofs.Sometimes the liquid rubber is used for waterproofing basements from the inside, but it is wrong.Please note - the liquid rubber is not able to withstand negative water pressure, it just comes off the base.Therefore, spraying her in the basement just to empty the money spent.If a positive pressure water, such as a roof, it is possible to safely use the active material.
Materials .Synthetic rubbers."Tehnoprok", "Rapidfleks", "Elastopaz", "Elastomiks", "Master Rufus", "Inopaz H2O" and others.
Advantages .When spraying liquid rubber fills even the smallest pores, creating a hermetic coating.The surface is processed quickly due to mechanization.
- required temperature is not below +5 ° C.
- Coverage afraid punctures.
- Before applying the base surface must be dry and the frozen.
- Strong wind makes it difficult to spray.The work must be carried out in calm weather.
- high price.
- complex relief requires greater material consumption, leading to overall cost.
- works can only be carried out specialists.
- require special expensive equipment.
- If the storage conditions of the liquid rubber has not been complied with, for example, it is frozen in storage, "sintering" of the molecules does not occur on the surface of a porous base pancake, which simply will not perform its functions.
- Use only outside working "on the clamp."
Note waterproofing liquid rubber from each iron advertise, offer it to isolate the flooded cellars.As you may have guessed, the coating will last no longer than one season, and the money will be wasted.Use only liquid rubber on the outer surfaces.
Penetrating waterproofing prevents the capillary rise of water in the pores of the concrete.The composition for coating the surface of the concrete is a mixture of Portland cement, from fine quartz sand and active chemicals.Penetrating waterproofing is applied to a wet surface, the composition reacts with water, whereby crystals are formed that fill all pores and capillaries crack and become part of the concrete itself, preventing water penetration.The penetration depth of the composition in the thickness of the concrete can reach 15 - 25 cm. Some manufacturers penetrating materials assure that their composition is able to penetrate deep into the 90 cm thickness of concrete.
Appointment .Penetrating waterproofing concrete surfaces are processed in the cellars.If you dig the foundation is not possible, it is also possible to treat the inside penetrating composition.Various concrete tanks, for example, silos, and waterproofed penetrating materials.
Materials ."Penetron" "Peneplag" "Penekrit" "MAXPLUG" "hydrochemical" and other analogs.
Advantages penetrating waterproofing :
- All work can be done inside the basement, there is no need to dig the foundation.
- Dry with concrete is not necessary.The more deeply moist concrete, better crystallization reaction occurs and the composition penetrates more deeply.
- quality materials ("Penetron") are able to penetrate to a depth of 60 - 90 cm in thickness of concrete common layer.
- material Provides protection from the inside, not the outside only.Completely eliminate the penetration of water into the concrete.
- composition has the function of "self-healing".If there is a crack in the concrete, it is immediately filled with crystals.
- Long life, equal durability of concrete.
- Concrete is permeable.
- Increases frost resistance and durability of concrete.
- No additional expensive equipment.
- treated concrete is not afraid of mechanical effects.